The Heritage of Calvert County,
Maryland For the Young Reader
Susan M. Sieglein
Erin Jeffers and Bruce Frazier,
Joan D. Roach, Editor,
Calvert County Heritage Committee
Photography by Susan Sieglein,
Calvert County, Maryland
This book was made possible by a generous grant
from the Marpat Foundation, headed by Mrs. Mary Marvin Breckinridge Patterson,
the wife of the late Jefferson Patterson.
The Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum was donated
by Mrs. Patterson in 1983. The 512 acre farm, where the Pattersons spent their
holidays was the largest donation ever made to the state of Maryland.
In the 1930's, Mrs. Patterson led an adventurous
life that led her all over the world. When she was a photojournalist before
and during World War II, her work was published in National Geographic, Life
Magazine, Vogue, Harpers Bazaar, Look, Travel, and Town and Country.
Her 1930 film, The Forgotten Frontier, documented
the work of nurses who traveled on horseback to provide medical care In the
Mrs. Patterson was the first woman correspondent
for CBS, and the first woman to be licensed to fly in Maine.
She has many philanthropic interests including
the Frontier Nursing Service, the International Student House, the Fletcher
School of Law and Diplomacy, the Meridian International House, and die U.S.
Association of Museum Volunteers.
Pages can be accesssed by scrolling
or clicking on the links below.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WHERE WE LIVE
Where we live
There are many answers
question: "Where do you live?"
What country do you live in?
The United States of America
is the name of our country. Sometimes
it is called the United States. Sometimes
it is called America.
What state do you live
in? The United States of America is
made up of many smaller parts, called states. There are 50 states in America.
This is a map of Maryland, the state where we live.
What county do you live in?
Maryland is also made up of smaller parts, called counties.
We live in Calvert County. Find Calvert County on the map of
Look at the map of Maryland. Can you name the other counties around Calvert County?
What community do you live in?
The place where we live is called our community. It is a place where many
homes and businesses are near each other. People in communities help each
other. Can you find your community on the map of Calvert County?
There is one town in each county where
rules are made for the people who live in that county. This special town
is called the county seat. The county seat of Calvert County is Prince
Frederick. Find Prince Frederick on the map of Calvert County.
Name the bodies of water
that are around our
What other things can the
map tell you?
What does our county look like?
Calvert County is surrounded by
water on three sides.
||One side is along the Chesapeake Bay. The
bay is an estuary. An estuary is a body of water in which fresh water from
rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean.
| Where the land meets the bay,there
are sometimes cliffs. Much of Maryland was under
water at one time. As the waters
moved away, the path of the bay
was carved, and the cliffs were
||On the other side of Calvert County is the
Patuxent River. How is this side of the county different from the other
The things around us are our environment. Plants and animals also share our
Many kinds of plants and animals live in the woodlands and wetlands of
Calvert County. They have learned to live best in certain environments.
Here are two different types of environments that can be found in Calvert
County, and the plants and animals that like to live there.
It is very important to protect our environment.
The Patuxent River and Chesapeake Bay used to be
home to many more plants and animals. People were
once able to catch as many fish, crabs and oysters as
they wanted. They will all disappear if too many are
It is also important to keep the land
and the water clean. What we do on land also affects
the animals that depend on the water to live.
When it rains, some of the rain water goes
into the ground to be used by plants.
Extra water runs into drainage ditches and
The creeks run into rivers.
The rivers run into the bay.
When farmers began using plows in the early
1800's, it was easier for the soil to erode, and
wash into the rivers. This caused a lot of dirt,
called silt, to mix with the water.
The rivers got shallower and narrower as
the silt collected along the edges. Boats could
no longer go as far up the rivers and creeks.
The silt also made it unhealthy for the fish to
live in the water.
Fertilizers are chemicals that help plants to
grow strong. If too much fertilizer is used by
farmers or people on their lawns, it washes
into the rivers and can eventually harm the fish.
The trash and waste products that we throw away can also hurt our environment.
What was Calvert County like before people lived
Scientists and historians try to figure out what life was
like on earth a long time ago by looking for clues in
nature. They know about some plants and animals from
fossils in the ground.
Fossils are parts of plants and animals, or their imprints,
that are preserved in stone.
The Calvert Cliffs are famous for the fossils that can be
found in them.
Fossils are made many different ways.
Sometimes fossils are made when fish die and
sink to the bottom of the sea. Silt and mud
must cover the fish quickly. After many years,
minerals replace the bones and a fossil is
Footprints in mud can turn into fossils.
Seashells and shark's teeth are other types of
What kinds of fossils are found in Calvert County?
Fossils of animals that used to live in Calvert
County but have become extinct have been found.
Many animals used to roam the earth but will never
be seen again.
Forty foot long sharks...
The largest modern great
white shark ever measured
was 21 feet long.
The megatooth was the largest meat-eating shark
that ever lived. It was longer than a school bus.
Megatooth teeth can be found in Calvert Cliffs.
One tooth from
be this big.
given names to
the layers of earth in which fossils are found.
These are some of the other kinds of
fossilized shark's teeth that can be found
in Calvert Cliffs.
Extinct Mako Shark
Found in Miocene to
Found in Upper
Found in Miocene to
A salt-water crocodile......
Found in the
Mastodons were ten foot
high animals, like elephants,
that were covered with hair.
They ate bark, leaves and
other parts of trees.
||Can you imagine seeing dinosaurs
in your neighborhood?
We know some dinosaurs lived
in Maryland because fossils have
been found. Parts of bones, teeth
and footprints have been left in
Scientists study these fossil
clues and try to imagine what the
whole animal looked like, and
how it lived. Because only small
pieces of Maryland dinosaurs
have been found, we don't know very much about them.
Astrodon, a plant eater, is believed to be the most
common dinosaur that lived in Maryland.
Who were the first people to live here?
The first people to live where Calvert County
is today are called Native Americans. Archaeologists
believe that they began living here thousands of years
ago. Native Americans had their own way of living that
was very different from the way we live today.
Native Americans lived by using the plants,
animals and other natural products from the land to
make their homes, their clothes, their medicines and
There were many groups, or tribes, of Native
Americans. The tribe was their community.
The tribe that lived in Calvert County when
Europeans first arrived was called the Patuxent. The
Patuxent River is named after them. In their language,
the word 'Patuxent' means "at the little rapids in a
They lived in a house called a
longhouse. To build them, they cut and
bent young, green trees to make a frame.
Then the women wove mats out of
rushes, or used large pieces of bark to
cover the frame.
They left a hole in the roof to let the
smoke out because they built their fires
They covered the door with a mat
that could be rolled up.
At that time, most of the land was covered with woods, so the Patuxent built
their communities next to rivers. The Patuxent's main village was along the shores of
The Patuxent were successful farmers. They grew corn, beans, squash,
sunflowers and other foods. They gathered wild plants, oysters and fish from the
forest and rivers. When they made their gardens, the men burned tree trunks and
roots until the trees died. Then they cleared away the fallen trees. When the field
was ready, the women planted corn, squash and bean seeds together in mounds of
Before the crops were ready to eat, children had to go into the woods and
collect berries, chestnuts and other foods for the family. At ten years old, boys were
allowed to help their fathers hunt for food.
They prepared corn to eat in many ways, just like we
do. They even made popcorn.
One way they made popcorn was by roasting dried
corn-on-the-cob on a stick. The pieces that popped and
landed on the ground could be eaten. But many pieces
landed in the fire!
Each tribe had their own customs.
Some were friendly and traded things
they needed with others, and some were
The Patuxent were at war with
the Susquehannock tribe, who lived
near the northern part of the
Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehannocks
often attacked the Patuxent villages.
Native American children played
many games, like archery, running
races, ball games and hoop games.
Native Americans invented the game of
lacrosse. It helped them with running
and aiming, skills they needed for hunting.
Who was Captain John Smith?
The first European explorer known to visit what is
now Calvert County was Captain John Smith.
John Smith was from England but he traveled all over the world. He joined a
group of men who came to explore and settle in Virginia.
He made friends and traded with many tribes of Native Americans,
even learning to speak some of their language. He knew that the Native Americans could
teach his people how to live here more easily.
How do we know about
John Smith's trip here?
States and counties didn't
even exist then.
John Smith wrote stories
about many of his voyages to
America. He once described a
trip he made up the Patuxent
River. He said the Native
Americans of the lower
Patuxent area were friendlier
than others in the Chesapeake
As he traveled up the Patuxent River, John Smith
described the high white clay cliffs on one side of the river,
and the low marshes on the other side. He said the water at
that time was "crystal clear and full of fish."
Farther up the river, some Native Americans hid
themselves inside bushes. They followed the boat along the
shore and fired arrows at it.
John Smith was able to make friends with some tribes,
but was attacked by others.
Smith once said
that there were
so many fish in
the waters here that he
tried to scoop them
out with his frying
Smith made a map which showed 15 Native
American villages along the Patuxent River.
Captain Smith had several
adventures on the Patuxent, then
returned to England.
His account of this Patuxent River
exploration is the earliest known
description of Calvert County lands 2
the people who lived here.
After explorers like John Smith
learned about the land, more people
came from Europe to settle in America.
Different European countries
fought each other to gain control of
Native American's lands.
What was it like to be one of the first settlers?
The lives of the first settlers were
It could take up to ten weeks of
sailing in a crowded, dirty ship with
awful food. Many people became sick
and died from the conditions of the
Two ships were sent with the first Maryland
settlers. The Ark and the Dove arrived in
1634. The passengers settled in what is now
St. Mary's County, just south of Calvert County.
When the settlers arrived the land seemed wild to them and they didn't know
how to survive on their own.
There were no houses for them, no roads, no stores, and no gardens of their
own to grow food. Many of them ran out of food and the other supplies that they
brought. A lot of settlers became sick and died from the conditions of the land.
Some settlers took over the cleared Native American fields. Other settlers
cleared away trees to make their own fields. They had to build houses in which to
live. They had to plant gardens to grow food.
The first settlers could not have
survived at all without the help of the
Native Americans, who showed them
how to live off the land. They showed
them how to hunt animals for food and
how to grow plants and vegetables. The
settlers also traded products for Native
American corn and other food.
The colonists and Native Americans ate the
same foods: corn, meat and seafood.
When the Maryland colonists
first arrived they lived in the
same kinds of houses as the
Native Americans. After they
had been here a while, some
of them built wooden houses like
When people come to settle
permanently in a new land they are
called colonists, because they establish
Most of the first
colonists were men.
Women and children
The colonists began by building
villages of their own, apart from the
Some colonies were established in
the North, like the Pilgrims at Plymouth.
And some colonies were
established in the South, like St. Mary's
City and Jamestown.
As more colonists came, their
villages spread out farther and farther
over the land. The Native Americans lost
their lands to the colonists.
A LITTLE ABOUT LIFE IN THE 1600'S
In the early 1600's there were no public
schools. Wealthy families hired private tutors for
their children, or sent their sons to England to
Children of families who could not afford
tutors were taught by their parents to read and
write or sometimes they didn't study at all. Some
families believed that only boys should be taught.
During the day there were many chores to
do. All the family members helped, even the
The garden needed
to be tended, and
the chickens needed
to be fed.
In the 1600's there
usually wasn't a kitchen in
the house. Cooking could
be done inside in the
fireplace or outside.
There were no
indoor bathrooms either.
Chamber pots were used
at night but they had to be
emptied in the morning.
Outhouses were outside.
All water for washing or cooking had to be carried
in buckets from the spring everyday. There was no electricity. Fires were built
Who was Calvert County named
In the early 1600's grants of land in
America were given out by the King of
England to noblemen who asked for it.
George Calvert [c:1580-l632] was the first
Lord Baltimore. He asked for the original
charter of Maryland, but died before it
A title, like "Lord," was sometimes granted by
the king to honor someone.
When land was granted to
someone to colonize, it was called a
charter. The person who got the charter
was called "the proprietor," which meant
he was the manager and owner of the
Cecelius Calvert [1606-1675] inherited his
father's title, so he became the second Lord
Baltimore. He also inherited the charter of
Maryland and became the first proprietor.
"Cecil" Calvert never left England. He
appointed his younger brother, Leonard, to be
the governor of the colony of Maryland.
The proprietor did not have to
leave England. He could appoint a
colonial governor to oversee everything
Charles Calvert [1637-1715], the third Lord
Baltimore, was the second Proprietor of
Maryland, He was the son of Cecelius
Calvert and Anne Arundell of England.
Charles Calvert was the only proprietor to live
As the number of colonists grew,
Maryland had to be divided
into counties to make it easier for the
government to manage.
Benedict Leonard Calvert [1677-1715]
was the fourth Lord Baltimore. He died
shortly after his father.
How many other Maryland county
names can you find from the
proprietors and their family members listed in this chart?
Charles Calvert [1699-1751] was the fifth Lord
Baltimore and last Proprietor of Maryland.
He was only 16 years old when he became
Lord Baltimore. His guardian made decisions
for him until he was old enough. He later had
a son named Henry Harford.
What did the first colonists do?
Many different natural products were shipped back to England to be
sold but one product, tobacco, became so popular it changed the course
of America's history.
Tobacco was used in Europe ever since Columbus brought it back from his
voyages. The Colonists learned how to grow tobacco from the Native Americans.
They found that the soil was good for growing the best tobacco.
Tobacco was also very easy to transport. There were so many deep rivers that
people built their farms along the banks. Tobacco was loaded on boats to
After the tobacco was
harvested and dried, it was packed
into large barrels called hogsheads.
They could get hundreds of pounds
of tobacco into one hogshead.
The hogsheads were moved
from place to place by rolling them.
The hogshead would protect the
tobacco from water and damage
while it was being rolled or
Soon almost everyone was
growing tobacco and shipping it to
England to sell, or trading it for English
goods such as dishes, clothing, tools
and other things that were not yet being
made in the colonies. Tobacco was used
in the place of money.
Tobacco needed a lot of
attention to grow properly.
The tops of the plants
needed to be pinched to make the
bottom leaves grow larger.
Tobacco seeds are very small.
This much will plant a whole acre.
under the leaves for tobacco worms
Tobacco worms attacked it
and had to be picked off by hand.
At first the colonists' children had
this job. Sometimes they let turkeys
pick off and eat the tobacco worms.
The harvested leaves needed
to be dried, sorted and packed into
hogsheads. And thousands of
hogsheads needed to be built.
By this time, a lot of Southern Maryland was made up of tobacco farms,
At first the name "plantation" could be given to any farm, even a small one
where the owners worked alongside their servants.
Later, a plantation was the name given to a farm that was worked by servants
or slaves. Many servants and slaves were used to grow tobacco on plantations.
By the 1660's the slave trade was established in America, but not all
African Americans were slaves. Slavery had been practiced all over the world since
ancient times, so some people did not think it was wrong.
Not everyone agreed with
slavery. People who spoke out against
slavery were called "abolitionists,"
because they wanted to abolish slavery.
Some abolitionists helped slaves
escape to places where they
could be free.
Life on Plantations
On plantations, there was usually a central house
where the owner lived, and many other buildings.
Many slave families lived in small houses with one
room on the first floor, a fireplace, and a loft upstairs
where the children slept. These were like the houses
that the first settlers in Maryland built.
There were no glass windows.
There were only wood shutters
that could be closed to keep
out the rain.
The slaves often built
their own houses. The logs had
to be cut down, shaped and
put together. Mud and stones
packed between the logs kept the
wind out and kept in the heat from the fireplace.
There were few beds. Many
children slept on mattresses on the floor.
Everyone piled quilts on top of them,
covering even their heads. On winter
nights, snow would sometimes come
through the cracks in the house and the
people would wake up covered with
Arthur Storer was born in England and happened to live in the same
household with a boy named Isaac Newton. They became life-long friends,
went to school together, and studied astronomy.
Isaac Newton later became one of the most famous scientists of his time, best
known for his discovery of the laws of gravity.
Arthur Storer was gifted in the study of astronomy. He moved to Maryland in
1678, but he liked to write to his friend Isaac Newton back in England, sharing
notes of his scientific research.
In 1680 and 1682, Arthur
Storer charted comets in Calvert
County where he was living,
"...at the River Patuxent near
Hunting Creek in Maryland."
The 1682 comet was later
named "Halley's Comet." Storer
may have been one of the first
persons in the world to report
Storer was a great scientist
because of the accuracy of his
work, even though he only had
very crude instruments to use.
He was famous in Europe but
almost forgotten here.
Storer's grave has never been found, but many believe he was buried
on his sister's property near Prince Frederick. Her house used to be on
the grounds where Calvert High School is today. The school planetarium
is named after Arthur Storer.
The History of Calvert County
When was Calvert County
Cecelius Calvert established
Calvert County in 1654. The county
name was changed to "Patuxent
County" for a few years, then the name
was changed back to Calvert County in
After Calvert County grew, the
people needed a new county seat, a
town where the leaders could meet
to make the laws and rules for the
county. Calvertown was the
first county seat, and was
located on the Patuxent River.
In 1722 a place
called Williams Old
Field was chosen as the county seat.
It was renamed
Prince Frederick, after the son of
King George I of
The Calvert County seal
A LITTLE ABOUT LIFE IN THE 1700'S
In the 1700's, horses were popular for transportation. There were stagecoaches
and wagons to carry people and products from place to place, but the few roads
were very rough and were uncomfortable to ride on. Since there were few bridges,
ferries helped people cross the rivers at some places.
Some houses and other buildings were now being built out of brick instead of
wood. Brick was fancier and lasted longer. Many buildings built in the 1700's
are still standing today.
There were some schools and even a few colleges in America by the late 1700's.
In the 1700's, lots of new
products were being shipped from
England, such as fine furniture,
dishes, and clothes.
Different kinds of food were
now being shipped from all over the
world. It was very expensive to ship
some foods. Tea was so valuable that
people kept it in locked boxes.
Locked tea caddies held tea leaves.
People sometimes let their servants make
tea from their used tea leaves.
Even in the late 1700's, products
were mostly made by hand.
Laborers spent many hours making
things like furniture and metal
goods. Some families made a lot of
their own products for themselves
like soap and cloth. If you wanted
something in the 1700's, you either
had to make it yourself, hire
someone else to make it, or try to
get it shipped from overseas.
How did the United States of America begin?
On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed by some of
the colonial leaders. It was a letter to the King of England declaring that the
colonies were breaking free from Great Britain to become a new country.
The king didn't want the colonies to form a new country. He sent soldiers
to force the colonists to obey him.
It took many years of fighting to decide
who would control America, but eventually the colonists won.
The colonial times were over. The people were no longer colonists,
At the time of the war there were thirteen colonies. The thirteen
colonies became thirteen states. The thirteen states united as one country
- the United States of America.
We celebrate Independence Day on the 4th
The first governor of the new
state of Maryland was Thomas Johnson,
elected in 1777.
Johnson was born in and grew up
in Calvert County. He was a lifelong
friend of George Washington, who
became the first President of the United
States in 1789.
Thomas Johnson was a successful
governor and was re-elected two times.
Quincy Adams, the
6th President of the
Johnson was later appointed as a
justice of the Supreme Court of the
United States. He was a member of the
group that established the Constitution
of the United States, and helped plan
the city of Washington, D.C.
Roger Brooke Taney
Roger Brooke Taney was born in Calvert County
in 1777. His family's home, Taney Place, is on a hill
overlooking Battle Creek.
Taney became an important person in the new
government of the United States. He described
his life as a child in Calvert County just after the
Revolutionary War, in a biography.
Because roads were not very good, he
said that families often traveled by boat on the
rivers to visit each other.
By then there were some schools in
Calvert County. When he was eight years old,
Taney had to walk three miles to school where
he was taught reading, writing and arithmetic.
If the weather was bad, children stayed at home.
When he was older he went to a more advanced
school ten miles from home, and later a tutor was hired to
live at his house and teach all the children.
made many famous
decisions, and swore-in seven United States presidents.
In 1792 Taney traveled by boat to Baltimore
and then hitched a ride on a farm wagon to a college
in Pennsylvania where he studied law. Traveling was
so difficult that he only went home once during the
three years he was at college.
Taney later moved to Northern Maryland to
practice law. He was so successful that during his
life he became the Attorney General of Maryland,
Attorney General of the United States, Secretary of
the Treasury, and then Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court of the United States.
Farming has always been important to the people of Calvert County.
When the first settlers arrived, they used the same methods to grow
crops as the Native Americans. Everything had to be done by hand before
farm machines were invented.
They mounded soil and planted corn, beans, squash and tobacco in
little hills. This was because tree roots were still in the ground, and
they didn't have strong tools to remove them.
By the early 1700's other crops were being grown. More of the land
was prepared to grow crops.
Improvements in farming methods allowed farmers to do even more
in the early 1800's.
Horses and oxen pulled plows to prepare the land for planting.
Farmers could prepare more fields, but this also led to soil
erosion and siltation of the rivers.
Were any wars fought in Calvert County?
The War of 1812 began when the United States challenged Great Britain and
France because of raids on American ships. In 1814, the war came to Calvert
A fleet of twelve British fighting ships sailed into the Chesapeake Bay and
then up the Patuxent River. Their plan was to attack Washington, D.C.
The British were met on the Patuxent River by American forces led by
Commodore Joshua Barney. The Battle of St. Leonard's Creek was fought on June
10, 1814. It was a hard fight but the Americans won the battle. The Battle of St.
Leonard's was the largest naval battle ever fought in Maryland.
While the British were fighting in Calvert County they destroyed the town
of Calvertown, which was once the county seat. They also burned down many
plantations and the courthouse in Prince Frederick.
From Calvert County the British soldiers marched north.
There were terrible battles in and around Washington D.C.
Much of Washington was burned during the war.
The people of Baltimore, however, were able to
drive the British out.
A treaty was finally signed on Christmas Eve in 1814
stating that Britain and the U.S. would go back to the
way things were before the war.
How did people get from place to place?
In the early 1800's people still
took boats on the rivers to visit
other families and cities.
The Eagle was 130 feet long and 22 feet
wide. It went 5 miles per hour.
Steamships came to the Chesapeake Bay in 1813. They used
wood-burning furnaces instead of sails to make them move, even though sails
were sometimes added to help.
For the first boats carrying people and products could run on a regular
schedule, since they did not depend on the wind or weather.
In 1817 the Weems Steamboat Line was established by Captain George Wessum
of Calvert County.
The Weems steamships carried people and products between Baltimore and
Southern Maryland for many years. The ships traveled all over the Chesapeake
Bay, to Virginia, and up and down the Patuxent River.
A cruise on a steamship could be very fancy, even though there were crates of
vegetables, seafood and other products on board.
Steamships allowed people
from isolated farmlands to visit
the big cities, and products
manufactured far away could get
to people who wanted them.
Wharves, where the
steamships docked, were exciting
places for people to meet, greet
passengers, and watch new
products being unloaded.
For short trips, people walked and
rode horses over the land. Oxen pulled
wooden carts to carry produce to
markets. Some people had other types
of horse-drawn vehicles to ride in.
The Horse and Buggy
This was used by families in the late 1800 's and early 1900 's.
There were many dirt roads, but they were
still not very good. Wheels cut deep grooves in them, and when it rained
they were full of mud. Many accidents happened when a wheel got stuck
on the road causing the buggy to
Steam locomotives were one of
the most important new developments
and were beginning to be used in
America in the 1830's.
Railroads allowed people and
products to move over land easier than
ever before. They connected large cities
in the East with remote areas being
settled in the West.
||There were no railways in Calvert County
until the end of the 1800's when one was built to Chesapeake Beach.
Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor
Margaret Mackall Smith was born
in St. Leonard, in Calvert County. While
in Kentucky visiting her sister, she met a
soldier named Zachary Taylor. They
were married and later had six children.
Zachary Taylor became the 12th
President of the United States in 1849,
and the family moved to the White
Margaret Taylor is the only First Lady without
an authentic portrait - no one knows for sure
what she looked like.
A LITTLE ABOUT LIFE IN THE 1800'S
The differences in the way
people lived in the beginning of
the century and at the end of the
century were enormous.
In the early 1800's, the
Industrial Revolution changed life
forever. New machines were
invented that made products
quickly and cheaply in factories.
No longer did many things have to
be made by hand.
More people could now
afford products that made their
lives easier. Almost anything could
be bought in a store or ordered
from a catalog.
In the 1800's, improved
printing presses made information
and knowledge available to more
people than ever before.
Because it was now easier to
travel around the country, people
could talk with others who had
different ideas and ways of living.
More and more schools were built.
Many people moved to cities
like Baltimore to find work, because
much of the country was changing
from farming to manufacturing.
What happened to the slaves who were brought to America?
In 1865 slavery was abolished everywhere in the United States.
But even with freedom, life did not get better right away. If
freed slaves continued working for their former owners, like
most did in Calvert County, they could sign a contract to work
in return for housing, food, medical care and firewood. They
often lived in the former slave cabins.
Ex-slaves who could own their own land had the hope of escaping poverty.
Just like the first settlers, many African Americans had to start from nothing
and make everything for themselves. The land sold or given to them usually
had to be cleared of trees. Houses had to be built. Fields and gardens had
to be made.
Many African Americans fished and oystered for a living.
Albert Gantt was a slave at Parker's Wharf in
Calvert County. During the Civil War, his owner gave him
permission to join the Union Army as a soldier, and said
he could return after the war.
After fighting in many important battles, he returned
home to where he had once been a slave.
He was given a place to live in return for catching
fish and oysters. He fished for a while, then worked on
the farm for many years.
Because of his hard work and skills he was later given
a high-paying job in Baltimore, registering ships
that came into Baltimore harbor.
With his savings he bought some land, and with his
wife Aleitha, worked to make it a very successful farm.
A leader of the African American community in
Calvert County, he was a decorated veteran in the Army, a
church leader, a prominent land owner, and a successful farmer.
Albert Gantt became successful during a time of
discrimination against African Americans.
Ship building and fishing in Calvert County
In 1867 Captain Isaac Solomon
established a commercial fishery in
southern Calvert County. The area later
became known as "Solomons Island,"
then "Solomons." Hundreds of ships
were built there and Calvert County
seafood was shipped all over the East
Coast. Solomon also built the first oyster
house on the Patuxent River, a cannery
that packed the oysters.
Ships built in the Chesapeake
Bay area are famous throughout Europe
and America. Ships have always been
important to the people of Calvert
County because there are so many rivers
The first settlers used the rivers as
"roads" to get around because the land
was covered with woods. Later, fishing
and harvesting seafood became
an important industry. Fishermen needed
boats in order to do their job.
Engraving by Theodore DeBry, after a
watercolor by John White, Library of Congress
When the first explorers and
settlers arrived here, they learned to
make dugout log canoes from the Native
Americans. The colonists later improved
upon the design of the canoes, making
them out of several logs instead of just
and adding sails.
These new and improved canoes were used to collect oysters,
which became an important food product.
At first fisherman used special tongs to pick up the oysters,
a few at a time. Later, dredges were invented. The dredge
was much faster and could harvest many more oysters at
one time, but it was heavy and hard to use. They needed
a larger and stronger ship.
Between the 1860's and 1880's, "bugeyes" were developed
to be used for dredging oysters. These ships became very
popular in the Chesapeake Bay area.
James T. Marsh was a famous ship builder. He moved to Solomons Island
in 1872 and opened a ship building business, called a shipyard.
He built schooners and sloops until 1879, when someone asked him to
build a bugeye. He said he would build it if they would let him design the ship with
his own ideas.
Bugeyes had always been built out of logs like the log canoes but Marsh
probably built the first bugeye with a frame covered by planks.
His design was such a success that he had many orders to build bugeyes
for several years afterward.
In the 1880's the Patuxent River became an important source of seafood.
Fishermen harvested all kinds of fish, as well as crabs, oysters, clams and eels.
Many people found work as businesses sprang up along the shore to process,
pack and ship different kinds of seafood products to other places to be sold.
There are more than two hundred types of fish in the Chesapeake Bay and the
rivers that flow into it, including shad, catfish, herring, striped bass, perch, flounder
In 1894, Willis Overton and his
brother patented a fish processing
machine to be used in their fish factory
The machine carried the fresh fish
along a conveyor belt through a cooking
tunnel where they were steamed.
The fish later traveled up to
rollers, where they were pressed to
release their fish oil.
Then the flattened fish went to a
place to be steam dried. A vent caused
the smell of the fish to drift all over
The dried fish product was used
by farmers as fertilizer.
In the late 1800's crabbers began using trotlines. They
took a rope and tied pieces of salted eel to it every few feet.
After the rope was in the water, the crabs would come up to eat
the eel. The crabbers lifted the trotline up to the boat and caught the
crabs with a net. This is the oldest method of harvesting crabs that is still used today.
Since 1938 crabbers have
also used wire traps called "crab
A crab pot.
Oysters have been processed the same way for over a hundred years. After
oystermen collected oysters with tongs or dredges, they were shipped back to oyster
houses to be processed.
Some oysters were sold "shucked." The oyster shells were removed by people
called shuckers, who then sorted the oyster meats by size.
When the shucker's buckets were full, they were given to another person
called a "skimmer," who rinsed and drained them.
The oysters were collected and put in a large tank to be
washed. They were packed into cans and sent to stores to be sold.
'Floor men' used wheelbarrows to carry oysters from the receiving
room to the shuckers, then carried out the used shells and dumped them
in a huge shell pile.
The Chesapeake Bay has also
been a good place to catch fish. From
1900 to the 1950's, pound net
fishing was very popular at Flag
Ponds in Calvert County. While
most of the coast had high cliffs
along the shore, the land at Flag
Ponds was very flat.
The fishermen could bring
the catch right from their nets
onto land to be shipped to Balti-
more by trucks.
Mostly herring, shad and
rockfish were caught, but some
fishermen reported finding
sharks and sea turtles in then-
Captain Todd built this shanty
that you can still visit today.
The fishermen lived on the shore in shanties
during the spring and summer while they were working
A square pen, called a "pound" was built out of
nets and put in the water.
Other nets, called the "false
pound" and "leader," guided the fish to
swim into the pound.
At low tide the fishermen would
bring their boats up to the pound and
scoop out the fish.
A pound net could catch up to
50,000 fish at a time.
In the early 1900's, nets needed to be coated with tar to keep them from
rotting in the water.
Fishermen at Flag Ponds built six foot long wooden boxes. The bottom was
covered with metal so they could light a fire under it to melt the tar.
The tar had to be at the right temperature so when the nets were put into it
they didn't burn. Some fishermen threw a potato into the pot of tar. If the potato
floated, they knew it was the right temperature.
By the 1950's there were fewer fish in the Chesapeake Bay, and it cost more to
catch them. The commercial fisheries at Flag Ponds were abandoned.
The "Great Fire of Prince Frederick"
The town of Prince Frederick has served as the county seat for
many years. It is the town where government leaders meet to make the
rules and laws for the people of Calvert County.
Prince Frederick is also where the county courthouse is located.
That is where important records of the county's history are kept.
When buildings were heated by coal or wood fires, and candles
and lanterns were used as lights, fires were common.
On March 3, 1882, at 3:00 p.m., the "Great Fire of Prince
Frederick" occurred. Most of the town burned down.
The fire spread from building to building, destroying homes,
offices, the county newspaper building, stores, and the Brentwood
Hotel, then the largest hotel in Southern Maryland.
Only one thing was saved from the hotel: a grandfather clock
that someone had carried out. According to a newspaper account,
the clock stopped at 4:10 p.m., showing that the fire only lasted
about an hour.
Most of the very oldest records dating back to the county's
early settlement were in the courthouse.
The Clerk of the Circuit Court, Somervell Sollers, tried to rescue some
of the documents by climbing in a window while the building burned, but
he could only save some papers dating back a short time.
The loss of the records was a
major disaster because they listed names
and information about the people
throughout history who lived in Calvert
County, the land and things they owned,
and the decisions of the court.
To make matters worse, those
few documents that Sollers saved were
destroyed in another fire at a temporary
courthouse four months later.
All of Calvert County's records
before 1882 were lost in the two fires.
After the fire, only four buildings
in the entire town of Prince Frederick
were left standing.
The present-day courthouse
was built in 1915. It was
renovated and expanded over
the years. In 1991 a new wing
was added. The old courthouse
was located on what is now the front lawn.
A Rural Community in the Early 1900's
We know a lot about the town of Ben's Creek in Calvert County in
the early 1900's. Most of the old houses are long gone, but it had been
a strong African American community for many years. The people of
Ben's Creek lived like people in other small farming communities all
over Calvert County and Maryland.
At Ben's Creek all the neighbors, both African Americans and whites,
pitched in to help build new houses in the community. The houses
were surrounded by fences, vegetable gardens, outbuildings and fields.
For people in small rural communities, many things had to be grown or made
They raised chickens, turkeys and ducks for food. Feathers were saved and
dried to make pillows and mattresses.
In many households, each bed would have
two mattresses. One fitted with shredded
corn shucks, which was cooler, and one filled
with feathers, which was warmer. In the summer
the corn shuck mattress would be put on top.
In the winter the feather mattress would be put
Women sewed their own quilts.
In the vegetable gardens they
grew cabbage, tomatoes, onions, beans,
peas, turnips and sweet potatoes.
Vegetables were sometimes buried
in the ground, wrapped in straw, to
preserve them for a long time.
They had orchards of apples,
peaches and pears, and collected wild
blueberries. They also had a grape arbor
for food and for shade. The grapes
would be used to make jam.
In late November, families who
had hogs would kill them and store the
meat in the meat house. A few months
later the meat was smoked over a fire of
apple wood or sassafras to preserve it,
then hung back in the meat house for
Some families dug a hole called a "cooler" in
a shady spot outside. Milk and butter would
be put in crocks and buried there, to keep
cool. Other families of the time built a small
shed over a spring, called a "spring house,"
which also kept milk and butter cool before
refrigerators were used.
A LITTLE ABOUT LIFE IN THE EARLY 1900's
Calvert County has always been made up of many farms and
small rural communities. Because there were no large cities, the way of
life here remained the same for many years. But, the changes from the
early 1900's to today are much more drastic than at any other time in
history. Great changes have occurred in the way of life in the last half
of the 1900's.
People still used horse and buggy, steamships and the railway to
go long distances in the early 1900's, but cars were soon to come.
Automobiles were already invented but didn't become affordable and
popular until the 1920's. Before 1950 there were no paved roads in
Calvert County. All the cars drove on dirt roads.
Electricity was sparsely used in parts of Calvert County in the early
1900's, but it wasn't available for average home use until the 1930's. Before
that, people lit their homes and offices with oil lamps and kerosene. Some
families and businesses used battery-powered systems for electricity.
Water for drinking was collected by hand from springs or wells.
Buckets were filled and carried back to the house.
A spring was a place where fresh water came up out of the
ground by itself. A well is a deep hole that people have dug to
find underground water. A hand pump or a bucket on a rope was
used to get water out of the well.
Drawing water from the well.
Rainwater was collected in barrels and
used for washing clothes.
Before refrigerators, people
used ice houses, spring houses,
or buried food underground,
like at Ben's Creek.
An ice house was an underground room built outside. In the winter,
large ice blocks were cut from the rivers and brought into the ice house
and covered with straw. Foods could be stored in the ice house until June
when the ice melted.
Farm machines were
invented to make the work easier,
even though horse and ox-drawn
plows were still being used by
William Sampson Brooks
William Sampson Brooks was
born in 1865 in Calvert County. He
became a distinguished pastor, servingin
several African Methodist Episcopal
churches all across the United States.
He believed in the value of
education and helped raise money for
churches and schools.
W. Sampson Brooks also traveled
to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.
He learned to speak Swedish and
preached in that language in Sweden.
Brooks was very famous as a
speaker and a writer. His book,
Footprints of a Black Man, describes his
trip to Jerusalem.
In 1920 he became the 44th bishop of the A.M.E. Church.
The Brooks Administrative Building of the Calvert County Public Schools was
named for W. Sampson Brooks. The building was originally the first high school
for African Americans in Calvert County.
The one room school house
Children who went to public schools in the 1800's and even into the
1930's usually went to a one room school house like this one. At that
time, public schools only went up to the seventh grade.
There were no buses. Children often walked several miles to school.
There was no electricity. Windows let in all the light, and a wood
stove heated the room.
There were two outhouses; one for boys and one for girls.
Students in all the grades sat
together in the one room school house.
The children became close, like family.
Older students helped the younger students
with their lessons.
Most one room school house teachers
were women. One teacher taught all the grades.
Everyone had to learn reading, writing,
arithmetic, and morals. If the teacher
knew other subjects, she could teach them
to older students. Topics like bookkeeping,
algebra, Latin, German and philosophy were
taught in some Calvert County schools.
On cold winter mornings the students gathered
around the stove to get warm before
classes started. Sometimes the teacher
made hot cocoa.
Boys brought buckets of waterfrom
a nearby well. Anyone could take a
drink from the bucket using a dipper or a cup.
|Before pens and paper were
used, students wrote on little blackboards, called slates, and passed them
to the teacher to be graded.
The teacher had many other jobs besides teaching. The fire in the stove had
to be started, the school had to be kept clean, and lunch had to be prepared. Students
had chores also. They swept the floor two times a day.
At lunchtime the teacher stayed in and the students went outside to play by
Not all children went to school every day. Boys especially had to work on the
family farm during good weather, so they would go to school more often in the
One room school houses were the only public schools in Calvert County until
What town in
Calvert County is this?
Photo courtesy of the
Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum
The town of Chesapeake Beach was incorporated in
1894. Its purpose from the beginning was to be a resort
Otto Mears and David Moffat had a dream to build
a railroad and an amusement park for people in the
Washington area to visit.
Land on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay
was chosen to be the site of this modern new resort.
Railroad tracks and railway stations were built between
Washington D.C. and Chesapeake Beach. The railroad was opened and
brought the first vacationers to Chesapeake Beach in 1900.
In the old days, before air
conditioning or even electric fans,
people liked to go outdoors in the
summer and have fun.
To make a fun place for
people to take their vacations, the
owners of the Chesapeake Beach
resort built a boardwalk. At first it
was built far out over the water,
with games, amusements and
restaurants on top of it.
|They also built fancy hotels,
like The Belvedere..,
|| ..and even a roller coaster.
Photo courtesy of the
Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum
Photo courtesy of the
Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum
While trains brought many people from
the Washington area, steamships brought
people from Baltimore. The steamships docked
on a mile-long pier.
Over the years the resort
changed in many ways. The
boardwalk and amusements suffered
storms and fires. After cars became
popular, people had more freedom to
go to other places farther away. The
Great Depression badly affected
many businesses, including the
railroad business. The Chesapeake
Beach Railway closed in 1935.
By this time, the amusement
park had moved to the land.
However, it eventually closed in
1972. Everything was torn down
except the original railway station.
Today there are homes where the
amusement park used to be.
The Chesapeake Beach railway station
is now a museum
The town of North Beach
was developed about the same
time as Chesapeake Beach. It
was incorporated as a town in
1910. A trolley used to take
Chesapeake Beach and North
Beach. The "Twin Beaches" are
the only two incorporated towns
in Calvert County today. That
means that they each elect
mayors and town councils.
North Beach today boasts a
boardwalk and pier that are
pleasant reminders of the
"good old days."
Photo courtesy of the
Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum
Calvert County Today
In size, Calvert County is the smallest county in Maryland.
However, in population, Calvert County is the second fastest growing
county in Maryland. The population in 1990 was approximately 51,000.
Projected population for the year 2000 is 75,000.
Calvert County has a mild climate. The mean annual temperature
is 56.6 degrees and the annual rainfall is 43.88 inches.
Calvert County is governed by county commissioners. Five
commissioners are elected by voters for four-year terms. Commissioners
are in charge of the offices that collect property taxes, decide where
homes and businesses can be built, and maintain roads. Besides many
other services, they also plan parks and places for recreation.
Up to 1938 African American
teachers in Maryland were not paid the
same as other teachers.
Until the 1960's, African Americans
had to go to separate schools apart from
Harriet Brown from Calvert
County filed a lawsuit in 1937 that led to
equal pay for African American teachers
in Calvert County, and then the state.
Harriet Brown is one of five
women in the Maryland Women's Hall of
Fame for her contribution to the rights of
African Americans in Maryland.
Calvert County government
experienced a first in 1981 when
Jesse Reid was appointed a county
commissioner. He was the first African
American to hold the position. In 1990,
Michael Moore was the first African
American to be elected county
commissioner. Both men served their
county as strong businessmen before
and after their official government positions.
When Vonzell Ward was growing
up in Chesapeake Beach, he loved to
watch police cars going by his house.
He knew he would become a policeman
one day and have his own police car.
After graduating from Calvert High, he
did just that. He joined the Maryland
State Police in 1974.
Twenty years later, in 1994, after
many experiences, Vonzell Ward made
Calvert County history when he was
elected sheriff. He was the first African
American to hold that position.
Sheriff Ward is a good example of
how hard work and determination can
more than fulfill a child's dream.
Tom Clancy, local resident,
worked for many years as an insurance
broker in Owings. He became famous
worldwide in 1984 with the publication
of his first novel, The Hunt for Red
October. He has published many books
since that time and continues to live
with his family in Calvert County.
Mary D. Harrison
Mary Dolly Harrison lived on the
family farm in Owings her entire life,
1917-1987. She was educated in Calvert
County Public Schools. The first school
she attended was a one room school
house on Grover's Turn Road in
Owings. Not far from that site of long
ago, stands today the Mary D. Harrison
Cultural Arts Center. It was named in
honor of Miss Harrison because she was
an outstanding leader in her community
and because she strongly believed that
cultural arts were an important part of
Mary D. Harrison was the first
woman in Calvert County to be elected
to the position of county commissioner.
She ran for the office when she was 61
years old and was elected twice.
Miss Harrison was also a
businesswoman. She worked in the
lumber business for 50 years, including
owning her own company - the Owings
Miss Harrison is also remembered
for her love of nature and historical
heritage of Calvert County.
Louis L. Goldstein
Louis Lazarus Goldstein was born
in 1913 to Belle and Goodman Goldstein
of Prince Frederick. His parents
emigrated from East Prussia and Latvia,
and eventually settled in Calvert County.
Louis' father peddled housewares
door-to-door. His business later became
the Prince Frederick Department Store,
which was located where the
Courthouse Annex is today. When Louis
was a child, he and his brothers and
sister all worked in the family store,
which sold everything from shoes to
In 1939, Louis Goldstein was
elected state delegate from Calvert
County. During World War II he served
in the U.S. Marine Corps. He was elected
state senator in 1947. In 1958 he was
elected state comptroller of the Treasury and has
held that position ever since. Comptroller Goldstein has
held a statewide elected office longer than anyone in
The comptroller is in charge of collecting all the money for the state of
Maryland. His office keeps the records of all the money that the state collects,and
how it is spent. The work of the comptroller affects every part of the state
government. Mr. Goldstein has received many awards for his contributions and has
been recognized widely.
Route 4 from Dunkirk to Solomons, the District Court and Multi-Service Center
in Prince Frederick and the Treasury Building in Annapolis are all named after
Calvert County's native son - Louis L. Goldstein.
The bald cypress is the county
tree. It is an unusual tree that likes to
live in swamps. It has a broad bottom
and can grow 150 feet tall and 17 feet
wide. The roots of the tree come out of
the ground near the bottom of the trunk
and make small rounded humps called
The bald cypress is a conifer,
which are types of trees (like pines) that
usually keep their leaves on all winter.
The cypress drops its leaves in the fall,
giving it the name "bald."
The wood of the bald cypress
does not rot very fast. It has always been
prized wood for building ships, barn
siding, and fence posts.
During colonial times there were
many places where bald cypress could
be found, but people cut down almost
all of the trees.
Today, there are only a few places
to see them, such as the Battle Creek
Cypress Swamp Nature Center in Calvert
Very old cypress fossils were found
at Calvert Cliffs.
The American foxhound is
the county dog.
Foxhounds are medium-sized
dogs that can run fast and long.
Because of these abilities, packs of
foxhounds have been used for
hunting foxes since colonial times.
Fox hunting was a popular sport in
England and America at one time.
George Washington, the first
President of the United States,
owned several foxhounds.
The American foxhound and
the English foxhound are separate
The mountain laurel is the
Mountain laurel is a beautiful
flowering shrub native to the woods of
the Eastern United States. It keeps its
leaves all winter, so it is easy to spot on
the forest floor.
Mountain laurel blooms in late
spring with light rose to white flowers
that are sticky to the touch.
Mountain laurel can grow to over
ten feet high.
"Cavaliers of Calvert"
hun-dred might-y years
a-go, the Cav-a-liers, they came, in-to
The county song was published
in 1954 for the 300th anniversary of
Calvert County. It was written by Gladys
E. Mogck (now Gladys Mogck Brown),
and is titled "Cavaliers of Calvert."
Maryland State Symbols
The Maryland State flag
combines the black and gold of the
Arms of Calvert, with the red and white
cross of the Arms of Crossland. Leonard
Calvert and Ann Crossland were the
parents of the first Lord Baltimore,
George Calvert, who received the
original charter of Maryland.
The black-eyed Susan is the
Maryland State flower. It is a plant
that was found in Maryland and Calvert
County when the first settlers arrived.Its
black and yellow flowers were sent back
to England to be studied. Today you can
still find the black-eyed Susan growing
on the side of the road in some places.
Jousting is the Maryland State sport. It is a
game that knights played long ago. Two knights
would ride their horses at each other very fast, and
try to spear each other with long poles, called
lances. The winner was the knight who could stay
alive and on his horse.
Today, jousters try to spear small rings with
their lances, instead of each other. The rider who
can spear the most rings is the winner.
Jousting is a sport that is not well-known outside
of Maryland, but each year there are more
than 50 tournaments in our state. There is a jousting
tournament each August at Port Republic, in Calvert
County, sponsored by Christ Church.
PLACES TO VISIT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT CALVERT COUNTY*
1. Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Sanctuary
Gray's Road, off Sixes Road just south of Prince
Hours: April - September, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.,
Tues.-Sat, 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., Sun.
October - March, Area closes at 4:30 p.m.
Closed Mondays, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas
and New Year's Day.
2. Calvert Marine Museum
Route 2 in Solomons
Hours: May 1 - September 30, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00
October 1 - April 30, 10:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.,
Mon.-Fri., 12:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m., Sat.-Sun.
Closed New Year's Day, Thanksgiving and
Admission $3.00 adults, $2.00 children.
3. Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum
Mears Avenue in Chesapeake Beach (next to
Rod & Reel Restaurant)
Hours: Open daily May
through September, 1:00
p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Open
weekends in April and
October, 1:00 p.m. to 4:00
p.m. Appointments can
be made to visit during
winter and outside
regular operating hours.
School groups are
*Hours of operation
and admission prices
are subject to change.
4. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant
Route 4, 10 miles south of Prince Frederick.
Hours: Open daily 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
(except major holidays)
General visitors are not allowed inside
the plant, but group tours can be arranged by
calling the Education Center Office at (410)
5. Flag Ponds
Route 4 in St. Leonard
Hours: Memorial Day - Labor Day, 9:00 a.m. to
6:00 p.m., Mon.-Fri., 9:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m.
Labor Day - Memorial Day, 9:00 a.m. to 6:00
p.m. Weekends Only.
Admission: $4.00 per car for Calvert County
residents, $6.00 per car for out-of-county
residents, $25.00 per bus.
6. Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum.
Route 4 to Route 264 (3 miles south of Prince
Frederick). Left on Route 265, six miles to park
Hours: Open Wednesday through Sunday,
April 15 to October 15, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Groups must make advance reservations.
Guided tours available by advance request.
For teachers: Hands-on educational
programs available for a small fee for school
7. One Room School House Museum
On the grounds of Christ Church on Broomes Island Road (Route 264) in Port Republic.
Hours: Summer, 2:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. .every
Sunday. Special group or individual visits may
be arranged. Admission free.
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Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society. New York: W.W. Norton &
Co./University of North Carolina Press, 1979. Athearn, Robert G. Colonial America.
New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 1963.
Baker, Jean, Suzanne Chapelle, Dean Esslinger, Whitman Ridgway, Jean Russo,
Constance Schulz and Gregory Stiverson. Maryland: A History of its People.
Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
Bode, Carl. Maryland: A Bicentennial History. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc.,
Brandenburg, Aliki. Fossils Tell of Long Ago. New York: Aliki Brandenburg, 1972.
Brewington, M.V. Chesapeake Bay Log Canoes and Bugeyes. Centreville, MD:
Tidewater Publishers, 1963.
Brown, Carolyn S. and Bobbie P. Hyder. Neighborhoods and Communities.
Morristown, N.J.: Silver, Burdett & Ginn, Inc., 1984.
Carr, Lois G., Russell R. Menard and Louis Peddicord. Maryland...at the Beginning.
Annapolis, MD: Hall of Records Commission of the State of Maryland, 1984.
Donohue, Mildred D. and Norma S. Gordon, Eds. Fossil Finds in Maryland. College
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Special Thanks To;
Mrs. Mary Marvin Breckinridge Patterson and the Marpat Foundation
The Calvert County Board of Commissioners:
Mary M. Krug, President
Hagner R. Mister, Vice President
Patrick M. Buehler
Mark R. Frazer, D.D.S.
Linda L. Kelley
The Calvert County Heritage Committee:
Mabel Briscoe, Chairperson
Joan D. Roach, Editor
Patricia Hofmann, Assistant Editor
Marcia Hammett, Assistant Editor
Kirsti Uunila, Assistant Editor
Michael Smolek, Assistant Editor
J. Evans Ireland
Calvert County Public Schools
Board of Education:
Gail M. Hoerauf-Bennett, President
Harold J. R. Kahl, Vice President
William J. Moloney, Secretary-Treasurer
Dana M. Jones
Jo Ann Kushner
William J. Phalen
Kelly A. Mulligan, Student Representative
Supervisors of Instruction:
Guffrie M. Smith, Jr.
Francis J. Finan
Second Grade Teachers of Calvert County
Staff of the Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum
Harriet Stout, Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum
Richard Dodd, The Calvert Marine Museum
Mrs. Elvin Howard, One Room School House Museum
Thomas Callaway, and members of The St. Mary's City Militia
Historic St. Mary's City
Calvert County Historical Society
Gladys Mogck Brown
William and Linda Breen