The Heritage of Calvert County, Maryland For the Young Reader

Written by

Susan M. Sieglein

Erin Jeffers and Bruce Frazier, Illustrators

Joan D. Roach, Editor,
Calvert County Heritage Committee

Photography by Susan Sieglein,
unless specified

1995
Calvert County, Maryland

This book was made possible by a generous grant from the Marpat Foundation, headed by Mrs. Mary Marvin Breckinridge Patterson, the wife of the late Jefferson Patterson.

The Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum was donated by Mrs. Patterson in 1983. The 512 acre farm, where the Pattersons spent their holidays was the largest donation ever made to the state of Maryland.

In the 1930's, Mrs. Patterson led an adventurous life that led her all over the world. When she was a photojournalist before and during World War II, her work was published in National Geographic, Life Magazine, Vogue, Harpers Bazaar, Look, Travel, and Town and Country.

Her 1930 film, The Forgotten Frontier, documented the work of nurses who traveled on horseback to provide medical care In the Appalachian Mountains.

Mrs. Patterson was the first woman correspondent for CBS, and the first woman to be licensed to fly in Maine.

She has many philanthropic interests including the Frontier Nursing Service, the International Student House, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the Meridian International House, and die U.S. Association of Museum Volunteers.

Pages can be accesssed by scrolling or clicking on the links below.

 

                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

WHERE WE LIVE
Our country, state, county and community 2-4
What does our county look like? 5
Our environment 6-8
What was our county like before people lived here? 9-11
WHO WERE THE FIRST PEOPLE TO LIVE HERE?  
Native Americans 12-14
Who was Captain John Smith? 15-16
What was it like to be one of the first settlers? 17-18
A little about life in the 1600's 19-20
Who was Calvert County named after? 21
What did the first colonists do? 22
Tobacco 23-24
Life on plantations 25
PEOPLE: Arthur Storer 26-27
THE HISTORY OF CALVERT COUNTY  
When was Calvert County established? 28
A little about life in the 1700's 29-30
How did the United States begin? 31
PEOPLE: Thomas Johnson 32
PEOPLE: Roger Brooke Taney 33
Farming 34
Were any wars fought in Calvert County? 35
How did people get from place to place? 36-37
PEOPLE: Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor 38
A little about life in the 1800's 39-40
What happened to the slaves who were brought to America? 41
PEOPLE: Albert Gantt 42
Ship building and fishing in Calvert County 43-49
The "Great Fire of Prince Frederick" 50-51
A rural community in the early 1900's 52-53
A little about life in the early 1900's 54-56
PEOPLE: William Sampson Brooks 57
The one room school house 58-59
What town in Calvert County is this? 60-62
CALVERT COUNTY TODAY  
Our county 63
PEOPLE: Harriet Brown, Vonzell Ward, Jesse Reid,  
Michael Moore and Tom Clancy 64
PEOPLE: Mary D. Harrison 65
PEOPLE; Louis Goldstein 66
County symbols 67-69
Maryland State symbols 70
PLACES TO VISIT 71
BIBLOGRAPHY End

Where we live

 

 

 

There are many answers to the
question:
"Where do you live?"

 

What country do you live in?
The United States of America
is the name of our country. Sometimes it is called the United States. Sometimes it is called America.

What state do you live in? The United States of America is made up of many smaller parts, called states. There are 50 states in America. This is a map of Maryland, the state where we live.


   
 What county do you live in?
   Maryland is also made up of smaller parts, called counties.

   We live in Calvert County. Find Calvert County on the map of 
Maryland.

Look at the map of Maryland. Can you name the other counties around Calvert County?

What community do you live in?


The place where we live is called our community. It is a place where many homes and businesses are near each other. People in communities help each other. Can you find your community on the map of Calvert County?

 

There is one town in each county where laws and
rules are made for the people who live in that county. This special town is called the county seat. The county seat of Calvert County is Prince Frederick. Find Prince Frederick on the map of Calvert County.



Name the bodies of water
that are around our
county.
What other things can the
map tell you?
What does our county look like?
Calvert County is surrounded by
water on three sides.

Chesapeake Bay
One side is along the Chesapeake Bay. The bay is an estuary. An estuary is a body of water in which fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean.
                                                                  Patuxent River

Where the land meets the bay,there are sometimes cliffs. Much of Maryland was under
water at one time. As the waters
moved away, the path of the bay
was carved, and the cliffs were
made.

   
On the other side of Calvert County is the Patuxent River. How is this side of the county different from the other side?
              
The things around us are our environment. Plants and animals also share our
environment.
Many kinds of plants and animals live in the woodlands and wetlands of
Calvert County. They have learned to live best in certain environments.
Here are two different types of environments that can be found in Calvert
County, and the plants and animals that like to live there. Salt Marsh



    It is very important to protect our environment.
 The Patuxent River and Chesapeake Bay used to be
 home to many more plants and animals. People were
 once able to catch as many fish, crabs and oysters as
 they wanted. They will all disappear if too many are
 harvested.
   It is also important to keep the land 
and the water clean. What we do on land also affects
the animals that depend on the water to live.
       

 

      When it rains, some of the rain water goes
    into the ground to be used by plants.
      Extra water runs into drainage ditches and
    creeks. 
     The creeks run into rivers.
     The rivers run into the bay.
     When farmers began using plows in the early 
   1800's, it was easier for the soil to erode, and 
   wash into the rivers. This caused a lot of dirt, 
   called silt, to mix with the water.

     The rivers got shallower and narrower as
  the silt collected along the edges. Boats could
  no longer go as far up the rivers and creeks.

     The silt also made it unhealthy for the fish to
  live in the water.
Fertilizers are chemicals that help plants to grow strong. If too much fertilizer is used by farmers or people on their lawns, it washes into the rivers and can eventually harm the fish.
The trash and waste products that we throw away can also hurt our environment.

     











 What was Calvert County like before people lived
    here?
       Scientists and historians try to figure out what life was
    like on earth a long time ago by looking for clues in
    nature. They know about some plants and animals from
    fossils in the ground.
   
       Fossils are parts of plants and animals, or their imprints,
    that are preserved in stone.

       The Calvert Cliffs are famous for the fossils that can be
    found in them.
     

   Fossils are made many different ways.
 Sometimes fossils are made when fish die and
 sink to the bottom of the sea. Silt and mud
 must cover the fish quickly. After many years,
 minerals replace the bones and a fossil is
 formed.
 
  Footprints in mud can turn into fossils.
Seashells and shark's teeth are other types of
fossils.
 
What kinds of fossils are found in Calvert County?
    Fossils of animals that used to live in Calvert
 County but have become extinct have been found.
 Many animals used to roam the earth but will never
 be seen again.
    Forty foot long sharks...

The largest modern great
white shark ever measured was 21 feet long.

   The megatooth was the largest meat-eating shark
 that ever lived. It was longer than a school bus.

   Megatooth teeth can be found in Calvert Cliffs.


                     One tooth from
megatooth could
be this big.
Scientists have
given names to
the layers of earth in which fossils are found.
                                                       These are some of the other kinds of
                                                     fossilized shark's teeth that can be found
                                                     in Calvert Cliffs.
 
Extinct Mako Shark
  Found in Miocene to
  Pliocene layers
     
   Sand Shark
 Found in Upper
 Cretaceous to
  Recent layers
     
Extinct Tiger
     Shark
 Found in
 Cretaceous to
 Paleocene
   layers
     
Snaggletooth Shark 
Found in Miocene to
 Pliocene layers
     
  
A salt-water crocodile......
A mastodon.................
Found in the
       Pleistocene layer
     
 
  Mastodons were ten foot
high animals, like elephants,
that were covered with hair.
They ate bark, leaves and
other parts of trees.
     
        
  Can you imagine seeing dinosaurs in your neighborhood?
 
  We know some dinosaurs lived
in Maryland because fossils have
been found. Parts of bones, teeth
and footprints have been left in
the soil.
   Scientists study these fossil
clues and try to imagine what the
whole animal looked like, and
how it lived. Because only small
pieces of Maryland dinosaurs
have been found, we don't know very much about them.
                 
 
         
     
      Astrodon, a plant eater, is believed to be the most
common dinosaur that lived in Maryland.

        

Who were the first people to live here?


    The first people to live where Calvert County
is today are called Native Americans. Archaeologists
believe that they began living here thousands of years
ago. Native Americans had their own way of living that
was very different from the way we live today.
Native Americans lived by using the plants,
animals and other natural products from the land to
make their homes, their clothes, their medicines and
food.
There were many groups, or tribes, of Native
Americans. The tribe was their community.
The tribe that lived in Calvert County when
Europeans first arrived was called the Patuxent. The
Patuxent River is named after them. In their language,
the word 'Patuxent' means "at the little rapids in a
stream."
 
   They lived in a house called a
longhouse. To build them, they cut and
bent young, green trees to make a frame.

   Then the women wove mats out of
rushes, or used large pieces of bark to
cover the frame.

   They left a hole in the roof to let the 
smoke out because they built their fires
inside.
   They covered the door with a mat
that could be rolled up.
   At that time, most of the land was covered with woods, so the Patuxent built
their communities next to rivers. The Patuxent's main village was along the shores of
Battle Creek.
The Patuxent were successful farmers. They grew corn, beans, squash,
sunflowers and other foods. They gathered wild plants, oysters and fish from the
forest and rivers. When they made their gardens, the men burned tree trunks and
roots until the trees died. Then they cleared away the fallen trees. When the field
was ready, the women planted corn, squash and bean seeds together in mounds of
dirt.

Before the crops were ready to eat, children had to go into the woods and
collect berries, chestnuts and other foods for the family. At ten years old, boys were
allowed to help their fathers hunt for food.
   They prepared corn to eat in many ways, just like we 
do. They even made popcorn.

One way they made popcorn was by roasting dried
corn-on-the-cob on a stick. The pieces that popped and
landed on the ground could be eaten. But many pieces
landed in the fire!

   Each tribe had their own customs.
Some were friendly and traded things
they needed with others, and some were
war-like.
The Patuxent were at war with
the Susquehannock tribe, who lived
near the northern part of the
Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehannocks
often attacked the Patuxent villages.

   Native American children played
many games, like archery, running
races, ball games and hoop games.



   Native Americans invented the game of
lacrosse. It helped them with running
and aiming, skills they needed for hunting.
     

 

Who was Captain John Smith?

 

   The first European explorer known to visit what is
now Calvert County was Captain John Smith.
John Smith was from England but he traveled all over the world. He joined a group of men who came to explore and settle in Virginia.
He made friends and traded with many tribes of Native Americans, even learning to speak some of their language. He knew that the Native Americans could teach his people how to live here more easily.
How do we know about
John Smith's trip here?
States and counties didn't
even exist then.


  John Smith wrote stories
about many of his voyages to
America. He once described a
trip he made up the Patuxent
River. He said the Native
Americans of the lower
Patuxent area were friendlier
than others in the Chesapeake
Bay area.
     
 
   As he traveled up the Patuxent River, John Smith
described the high white clay cliffs on one side of the river,
and the low marshes on the other side. He said the water at
that time was "crystal clear and full of fish."
Farther up the river, some Native Americans hid
themselves inside bushes. They followed the boat along the
shore and fired arrows at it.
John Smith was able to make friends with some tribes,
but was attacked by others.
   
Smith once said
that there were
so many fish in 
the waters here that he
tried to scoop them  
out with his frying
pan.
     
   Smith made a map which showed 15 Native
American villages along the Patuxent River.
    Captain Smith had several
 adventures on the Patuxent, then
 returned to England.
 
    His account of this Patuxent River
 exploration is the earliest known
 description of Calvert County lands 2
 the people who lived here.
 
    After explorers like John Smith
 learned about the land, more people
 came from Europe to settle in America.
 
    Different European countries
 fought each other to gain control of
 Native American's lands.
     

What was it like to be one of the first settlers?
   The lives of the first settlers were
 very hard.
 
   It could take up to ten weeks of
 sailing in a crowded, dirty ship with
 awful food. Many people became sick
 and died from the conditions of the
 journey.
Two ships were sent with the first Maryland
settlers. The Ark and the Dove arrived in
1634. The passengers settled in what is now St. Mary's County, just south of Calvert County.
    When the settlers arrived the land seemed wild to them and they didn't know
 how to survive on their own.

    There were no houses for them, no roads, no stores, and no gardens of their
 own to grow food. Many of them ran out of food and the other supplies that they
   brought. A lot of settlers became sick and died from the conditions of the land.
 
    Some settlers took over the cleared Native American fields. Other settlers
 cleared away trees to make their own fields. They had to build houses in which to
live. They had to plant gardens to grow food.
   The first settlers could not have
survived at all without the help of the
Native Americans, who showed them
how to live off the land. They showed
them how to hunt animals for food and
how to grow plants and vegetables. The
settlers also traded products for Native
American corn and other food.

                                                         The colonists and Native Americans ate the
same foods: corn, meat and seafood.
When the Maryland colonists
first arrived they lived in the
same kinds of houses as the
Native Americans. After they 
had been here a while, some 
of them built wooden houses like 
this one.
   



  
     When people come to settle
permanently in a new land they are
called colonists, because they establish
colonies.
Most of the first colonists were men.
Women and children
arrived later.
   The colonists began by building
villages of their own, apart from the
Native Americans.

   Some colonies were established in
the North, like the Pilgrims at Plymouth.

   And some colonies were
established in the South, like St. Mary's
City and Jamestown.

   As more colonists came, their
villages spread out farther and farther
over the land. The Native Americans lost
their lands to the colonists.
     

 

 

 A LITTLE ABOUT LIFE IN THE 1600'S
   
 
 In the early 1600's there were no public 
schools. Wealthy families hired private tutors for
their children, or sent their sons to England to
study.
   Children of families who could not afford
tutors were taught by their parents to read and
write or sometimes they didn't study at all. Some
families believed that only boys should be taught.

During the day there were many chores to do. All the family members helped, even the
children.

   The garden needed
to be tended, and 
the chickens needed 
to be fed.
     

 

   In the 1600's there 
usually wasn't a kitchen in 
the house. Cooking could
be done inside in the
fireplace or outside.

       There were no 
indoor bathrooms either. 
Chamber pots were used
at night but they had to be
emptied in the morning.
Outhouses were outside.
     

All water for washing or cooking had to be carried in buckets from the spring everyday. There was no electricity. Fires were built for heat.

Who was Calvert County named after?

   In the early 1600's grants of land in
America were given out by the King of
England to noblemen who asked for it.
     
       George Calvert [c:1580-l632] was the first
           Lord Baltimore.  He asked for the original
           charter of Maryland, but died before it
           took effect.

       A title, like "Lord," was sometimes granted by
        the king to honor someone.
     
   When land was granted to
someone to colonize, it was called a
charter. The person who got the charter
was called "the proprietor," which meant
he was the manager and owner of the
land.
     
          Cecelius Calvert [1606-1675] inherited his 
          father's title, so he became the second Lord
Baltimore. He also inherited the charter of Maryland and became the first proprietor.

"Cecil" Calvert never left England. He
appointed his younger brother, Leonard, to be
the governor of the colony of Maryland.

   The proprietor did not have to
leave England. He could appoint a
colonial governor to oversee everything
for him.
     
      Charles Calvert [1637-1715], the third Lord
       Baltimore, was the second Proprietor of 
       Maryland, He was the son of Cecelius
Calvert and Anne Arundell of England.

Charles Calvert was the only proprietor to live
in Maryland.

   As the number of colonists grew,
Maryland had to be divided
into counties to make it easier for the 
government to manage.
      Benedict Leonard Calvert [1677-1715] 
      was the fourth Lord Baltimore. He died
      shortly after his father.
     
   How many other Maryland county
names can you find from the
proprietors and their family members listed in this chart?
      Charles Calvert [1699-1751] was the fifth Lord 
      Baltimore and last Proprietor of Maryland. 
      He was only 16 years old when he became
      Lord Baltimore. His guardian made decisions 
      for him until he was old enough.  He later had
      a son named Henry Harford.
     

What did the first colonists do?       

Many different natural products were shipped back to England to be
sold but one product, tobacco, became so popular it changed the course of America's history.
    Tobacco was used in Europe ever since Columbus brought it back from his
voyages. The Colonists learned how to grow tobacco from the Native Americans.
They found that the soil was good for growing the best tobacco.
   
  Tobacco was also very easy to transport. There were so many deep rivers that
people built their farms along the banks. Tobacco was loaded on boats to 
be sold.
   After the tobacco was
harvested and dried, it was packed
into large barrels called hogsheads.
They could get hundreds of pounds
of tobacco into one hogshead.


   The hogsheads were moved 
from place to place by rolling them. 
The hogshead would protect the
tobacco from water and damage 
while it was being rolled or 
shipped.
   
 
    Soon almost everyone was
 growing tobacco and shipping it to
 England to sell, or trading it for English
 goods such as dishes, clothing, tools
 and other things that were not yet being
 made in the colonies. Tobacco was used
 in the place of money.
   Tobacco
   Tobacco needed a lot of 
attention to grow properly.


   The tops of the plants 
needed to be pinched to make the
bottom leaves grow larger.

Tobacco seeds are very small.
This much will plant a whole acre.

Looking under the leaves for tobacco worms

 
.
  Tobacco worms attacked it
and had to be picked off by hand.
At first the colonists' children had
this job. Sometimes they let turkeys 
pick off and eat the tobacco worms. 

   The harvested leaves needed
to be dried, sorted and packed into
hogsheads. And thousands of
hogsheads needed to be built.





 
   By this time, a lot of Southern Maryland was made up of tobacco farms, 
called plantations.
 
  At first the name "plantation" could be given to any farm, even a small one
where the owners worked alongside their servants.

  Later, a plantation was the name given to a farm that was worked by servants
or slaves. Many servants and slaves were used to grow tobacco on plantations.

  By the 1660's the slave trade was established in America, but not all
African Americans were slaves. Slavery had been practiced all over the world since
ancient times, so some people did not think it was wrong.
   Not everyone agreed with
slavery. People who spoke out against
slavery were called "abolitionists,"
because they wanted to abolish slavery.
Some abolitionists helped slaves
escape to places where they
could be free.

   Life on Plantations
   
       On plantations, there was usually a central house
   where the owner lived, and many other buildings.

      Many slave families lived in small houses with one
   room on the first floor, a fireplace, and a loft upstairs
   where the children slept. These were like the houses
   that the first settlers in Maryland built. 
   There were no glass windows.
There were only wood shutters 
that could be closed to keep
 out the rain.       







   The slaves often built 
their own houses. The logs had 
to be cut down, shaped  and
put together. Mud and stones
packed between the logs kept the 
wind out and kept in the heat from the fireplace.
 
   There were few beds. Many
 children slept on mattresses on the floor.
 Everyone piled quilts on top of them,
 covering even their heads. On winter
 nights, snow would sometimes come
 through the cracks in the house and the
 people would wake up covered with
 snow.
   
   Famous People


Arthur Storer


   Arthur Storer was born in England and happened to live in the same
household with a boy named Isaac Newton. They became life-long friends,
went to school together, and studied astronomy. 
   
  Isaac Newton later became one of the most famous scientists of his time, best
known for his discovery of the laws of gravity.

  Arthur Storer was gifted in the study of astronomy. He moved to Maryland in
1678, but he liked to write to his friend Isaac Newton back in England, sharing
notes of his scientific research.
   In 1680 and 1682, Arthur
Storer charted comets in Calvert
County where he was living,
"...at the River Patuxent near
Hunting Creek in Maryland."
The 1682 comet was later
named "Halley's Comet." Storer
may have been one of the first
persons in the world to report
studying it.







   Storer was a great scientist
because of the accuracy of his
work, even though he only had
very crude instruments to use.
He was famous in Europe but
almost forgotten here.
   Storer's grave has never been found, but many believe he was buried
on his sister's property near Prince Frederick. Her house used to be on
the grounds where Calvert High School is today. The school planetarium
is named after Arthur Storer.
 
The History of Calvert County
When was Calvert County
 established?

   Cecelius Calvert established
Calvert County in 1654. The county
name was changed to "Patuxent
County" for a few years, then the name
was changed back to Calvert County in
1658.
 
   After Calvert County grew, the
people needed a new county seat, a 
town where the leaders could meet
to make the laws and rules for the
county. Calvertown was the
first county seat, and was
located on the Patuxent River.





   In 1722 a place
called Williams Old 
Field was chosen as the county seat.
It was renamed
Prince Frederick, after the son of
King George I of
England.





                         The Calvert County seal
   A LITTLE ABOUT LIFE IN THE 1700'S

   In the 1700's, horses were popular for transportation. There were stagecoaches
and wagons to carry people and products from place to place, but the few roads
were very rough and were uncomfortable to ride on. Since there were few bridges, 
ferries helped people cross the rivers at some places.
   
   Some houses and other buildings were now being built out of brick instead of
wood. Brick was fancier and lasted longer. Many buildings built in the 1700's  
are still standing today.

   There were some schools and even a few colleges in America by the late 1700's.
   In the 1700's, lots of new 
products were being shipped from
England, such as fine furniture,
dishes, and clothes.

  Different kinds of food were
now being shipped from all over the
world. It was very expensive to ship
some foods. Tea was so valuable that
people kept it in locked boxes.

Locked tea caddies held tea leaves.
People sometimes let their servants make
tea from their used tea leaves.
 
   Even in the late 1700's, products  
were mostly made by hand.
Laborers spent many hours making 
things like furniture and metal 
goods. Some families made a lot of
their own products for themselves
like soap and cloth. If you wanted
something in the 1700's, you either
had to make it yourself, hire
someone else to make it, or try to
get it shipped from overseas.
   
 
How did the United States of America begin?
   
   
   On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed by some of
the colonial leaders. It was a letter to the King of England declaring that the
colonies were breaking free from Great Britain to become a new country.
The king didn't want the colonies to form a new country. He sent soldiers
to force the colonists to obey him.
 
   It took many years of fighting to decide 
who would control America, but eventually the colonists won.
   The colonial times were over. The people were no longer colonists,
but Americans.

   At the time of the war there were thirteen colonies. The thirteen
colonies became thirteen states. The thirteen states united as one country
- the United States of America.

We celebrate Independence Day on the 4th
   of July.
 FAMOUS PEOPLE
   
Thomas Johnson
   The first governor of the new
state of Maryland was Thomas Johnson,
elected in 1777. 

   Johnson was born in and grew up 
in Calvert County. He was a lifelong
friend of George Washington, who
became the first President of the United 
States in 1789. 

   Thomas Johnson was a successful 
governor and was re-elected two times.
                                                           Thomas Johnson's
                                                                       niece, Louisa,
                                                                       married John
                                                                       Quincy Adams, the
                                                                       6th President of the
                                                                       United States.          
   Johnson was later appointed as a
justice of the Supreme Court of the
United States. He was a member of the
group that established the Constitution 
of the United States, and helped plan 
the city of Washington, D.C.
  FAMOUS PEOPLE
   
Roger Brooke Taney
   Roger Brooke Taney was born in Calvert County
in 1777. His family's home, Taney Place, is on a hill
overlooking Battle Creek.
   Taney became an important person in the new
government of the United States. He described
his life as a child in Calvert County just after the
Revolutionary War, in a biography.

   Because roads were not very good, he
said that families often traveled by boat on the
rivers to visit each other.
   
   By then there were some schools in
Calvert County. When he was eight years old,
Taney had to walk three miles to school where
he was taught reading, writing and arithmetic.
If the weather was bad, children stayed at home.
   
  When he was older he went to a more advanced
school ten miles from home, and later a tutor was hired to
live at his house and teach all the children.

Taney made many famous decisions, and swore-in seven United States presidents.

   In 1792 Taney traveled by boat to Baltimore
and then hitched a ride on a farm wagon to a college
in Pennsylvania where he studied law. Traveling was
so difficult that he only went home once during the
three years he was at college.

  Taney later moved to Northern Maryland to
practice law. He was so successful that during his
life he became the Attorney General of Maryland,
Attorney General of the United States, Secretary of
the Treasury, and then Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court of the United States.
Farming
   Farming has always been important to the people of Calvert County.
   
   When the first settlers arrived, they used the same methods to grow
crops as the Native Americans. Everything had to be done by hand before
farm machines were invented.

   They mounded soil and planted corn, beans, squash and tobacco in
little hills. This was because tree roots were still in the ground, and 
they didn't have strong tools to remove them.

   By the early 1700's other crops were being grown. More of the land
was prepared to grow crops.

  Improvements in farming methods allowed farmers to do even more 
in the early 1800's.
  
  Horses and oxen pulled plows to prepare the land for planting.
Farmers could prepare more fields, but this also led to soil
erosion and siltation of the rivers.

Were any wars fought in Calvert County?
   
   The War of 1812 began when the United States challenged Great Britain and
France because of raids on American ships. In 1814, the war came to Calvert
County.
  
  A fleet of twelve British fighting ships sailed into the Chesapeake Bay and
then up the Patuxent River. Their plan was to attack Washington, D.C.

  The British were met on the Patuxent River by American forces led by
Commodore Joshua Barney. The Battle of St. Leonard's Creek was fought on June
10, 1814. It was a hard fight but the Americans won the battle. The Battle of St.
Leonard's was the largest naval battle ever fought in Maryland.

  While the British were fighting in Calvert County they destroyed the town
of Calvertown, which was once the county seat. They also burned down many
plantations and the courthouse in Prince Frederick.
   From Calvert County the British soldiers marched north. 
There were terrible battles in and around Washington D.C.
Much of Washington was burned during the war. 
The people of Baltimore, however, were able to
drive the British out.

   A treaty was finally signed on Christmas Eve in 1814
stating that Britain and the U.S. would go back to the 
way things were before the war.






  How did people get from place to place?
   In the early 1800's people still
took boats on the rivers to visit
other families and cities.        

The Eagle was 130 feet long and 22 feet wide. It went 5 miles per hour.

      
   STEAMSHIPS
  
      Steamships came to the Chesapeake Bay in 1813. They used
   wood-burning furnaces instead of sails to make them move, even though sails
   were sometimes added to help.

      For the first boats carrying people and products could run on a regular
   schedule, since they did not depend on the wind or weather.

      In 1817 the Weems Steamboat Line was established by Captain George Wessum
   of Calvert County.

     The Weems steamships carried people and products between Baltimore and 
   Southern Maryland for many years. The ships traveled all over the Chesapeake 
   Bay, to Virginia, and up and down the Patuxent River.

    A cruise on a steamship could be very fancy, even though there were crates of 
  vegetables, seafood and other products on board.
   Steamships allowed people
from isolated farmlands to visit
the big cities, and products
manufactured far away could get 
to people who wanted them. 

   Wharves, where the 
steamships docked, were exciting
places for people to meet, greet 
passengers, and watch new 
products being unloaded.
 LAND TRAVEL
   For short trips, people walked and
rode horses over the land. Oxen pulled
wooden carts to carry produce to
markets. Some people had other types
of horse-drawn vehicles to ride in.
         The Horse and Buggy
This was used by families in the late 1800 's and early 1900 's.
 

 

 

 

 

There were many dirt roads, but they were still not very good. Wheels cut deep grooves in them, and when it rained they were full of mud. Many accidents happened when a wheel got stuck on the road causing the buggy to overturn.

 
   Steam locomotives were one of
the most important new developments
and were beginning to be used in
America in the 1830's.

  Railroads allowed people and
products to move over land easier than
ever before. They connected large cities
in the East with remote areas being
settled in the West.
 
There were no railways in Calvert County until the end of the 1800's when one was built to Chesapeake Beach.
FAMOUS PEOPLE
   
Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor 
   Margaret Mackall Smith was born
in St. Leonard, in Calvert County. While
in Kentucky visiting her sister, she met a
soldier named Zachary Taylor. They
were married and later had six children.
Zachary Taylor became the 12th
President of the United States in 1849,
and the family moved to the White
House.
                                                                                       Margaret Taylor is the only First Lady without 
                                                                                       an authentic portrait - no one knows for sure
                                                                                       what she looked like.  
 
  
      A LITTLE ABOUT LIFE IN THE 1800'S
   The differences in the way
people lived in the beginning of
the century and at the end of the
century were enormous.

   In the early 1800's, the
Industrial Revolution changed life
forever. New machines were
invented that made products
quickly and cheaply in factories.
No longer did many things have to
be made by hand.

   More people could now
afford products that made their
lives easier. Almost anything could
be bought in a store or ordered
from a catalog.
 
   In the 1800's, improved
printing presses made information
and knowledge available to more
people than ever before.

   Because it was now easier to
travel around the country, people
could talk with others who had
different ideas and ways of living.

   More and more schools were built.
                                                                               Many people moved to cities 
                                                                               like Baltimore to find work, because 
                                                                              much of the country was changing 
                                                                              from farming to manufacturing.




   What happened to the slaves who were brought to America?
    
      In 1865 slavery was abolished everywhere in the United States.

      But even with freedom, life did not get better right away. If 
 freed slaves continued    working for their former owners, like 
 most did in Calvert County, they could sign a contract to work
 in return for housing, food, medical care and firewood. They 
 often lived in the former slave cabins.
   
   Ex-slaves who could own their own land had the hope of escaping poverty.
Just like the first settlers, many African Americans had to start from nothing
and make everything for themselves. The land sold or given to them usually
had to be cleared of trees. Houses had to be built. Fields and gardens had 
to be made.

   Many African Americans fished and oystered for a living.

 FAMOUS PEOPLE  
 
Albert Gantt 
   Albert Gantt was a slave at Parker's Wharf in
Calvert County. During the Civil War, his owner gave him
permission to join the Union Army as a soldier, and said
he could return after the war.
   
   After fighting in many important battles, he returned
home to where he had once been a slave.
   
   He was given a place to live in return for catching
fish and oysters. He fished for a while, then worked on
the farm for many years.

   Because of his hard work and skills he was later given
a high-paying job in Baltimore, registering ships
that came into Baltimore harbor.

   With his savings he bought some land, and with his
wife Aleitha, worked to make it a very successful farm.

   A leader of the African American community in
Calvert County, he was a decorated veteran in the Army, a
church leader, a prominent land owner, and a successful farmer.

   Albert Gantt became successful during a time of
discrimination against African Americans.
Ship building and fishing in Calvert County
   
   In 1867 Captain Isaac Solomon
established a commercial fishery in
southern Calvert County. The area later
became known as "Solomons Island,"
then "Solomons." Hundreds of ships
were built there and Calvert County
seafood was shipped all over the East
Coast. Solomon also built the first oyster
house on the Patuxent River, a cannery
that packed the oysters.
   
   Ships built in the Chesapeake
Bay area are famous throughout Europe
and America. Ships have always been
important to the people of Calvert
County because there are so many rivers
and waterways.
 
   The first settlers used the rivers as
"roads" to get around because the land 
was covered with woods. Later, fishing 
and harvesting seafood became 
an important industry. Fishermen needed
boats in order to do their job.

Engraving by Theodore DeBry, after a watercolor by John White, Library of Congress

 

   When the first explorers and
settlers arrived here, they learned to
make dugout log canoes from the Native
Americans. The colonists later improved
upon the design of the canoes, making
them out of several logs instead of just
and adding sails.
      These new and improved canoes were used to collect oysters,
   which became an important food product.
      At first fisherman used special tongs to pick up the oysters,
   a few at a time. Later, dredges were invented. The dredge
   was much faster and could harvest many more oysters at 
   one time, but it was heavy and hard to use. They needed
   a larger and stronger ship.
     Between the 1860's and 1880's, "bugeyes" were developed
   to be used for dredging oysters. These ships became very 
   popular in the Chesapeake Bay area.
 

Dredging oysters

 

 
  


   James T. Marsh was a famous ship builder. He moved to Solomons Island
in 1872 and opened a ship building business, called a shipyard.
   He built schooners and sloops until 1879, when someone asked him to
build a bugeye. He said he would build it if they would let him design the ship with
his own ideas.

   Bugeyes had always been built out of logs like the log canoes but Marsh
probably built the first bugeye with a frame covered by planks.

   His design was such a success that he had many orders to build bugeyes
for several years afterward.
 
  In the 1880's the Patuxent River became an important source of seafood.
Fishermen harvested all kinds of fish, as well as crabs, oysters, clams and eels.
Many people found work as businesses sprang up along the shore to process,
pack and ship different kinds of seafood products to other places to be sold.

   There are more than two hundred types of fish in the Chesapeake Bay and the
rivers that flow into it, including shad, catfish, herring, striped bass, perch,    flounder
and sturgeon.
   In 1894, Willis Overton and his
brother patented a fish processing
machine to be used in their fish factory
near Solomons.

   The machine carried the fresh fish
along a conveyor belt through a cooking
tunnel where they were steamed.

   The fish later traveled up to
rollers, where they were pressed to
release their fish oil.

   Then the flattened fish went to a
place to be steam dried. A vent caused
the smell of the fish to drift all over
town!

   The dried fish product was used
by farmers as fertilizer.

   
   
   In the late 1800's crabbers began using trotlines. They 
took a rope and tied pieces of salted eel to it every few feet.
   
   After the rope was in the water, the crabs would come up to eat
the eel. The crabbers lifted the trotline up to the boat and caught the
crabs with a net. This is the oldest method of harvesting crabs that is still used today.
                              Since 1938 crabbers have
                                     also used wire traps called "crab
                                     pots."
   
                                       Shucking oysters. 

A crab pot.
 
   Oysters have been processed the same way for over a hundred years. After
oystermen collected oysters with tongs or dredges, they were shipped back to oyster 
houses to be processed.
   Some oysters were sold "shucked." The oyster shells were removed by people
called shuckers, who then sorted the oyster meats by size.

   When the shucker's buckets were full, they were given to another person
called a "skimmer," who rinsed and drained them.

   The oysters were collected and put in a large tank to be
 washed. They were packed into cans and sent to stores to be sold.
  'Floor men' used wheelbarrows to carry oysters from the receiving
room to the shuckers, then carried out the used shells and dumped them
in a huge shell pile.
 
   The Chesapeake Bay has also
been a good place to catch fish. From
1900 to the 1950's, pound net
fishing was very popular at Flag
Ponds in Calvert County. While
most of the coast had high cliffs
along the shore, the land at Flag
Ponds was very flat.



  The fishermen could bring
the catch right from their nets
onto land to be shipped to Balti-
more by trucks.

  Mostly herring, shad and
rockfish were caught, but some
fishermen reported finding
sharks and sea turtles in then-
nets.
   

Captain Todd built this shanty 
that you can still visit today. 
   The fishermen lived on the shore in shanties 
during the spring and summer while they were working 
their nets.
 
   A square pen, called a "pound" was built out of
   nets and put in the water.

   Other nets, called the "false
pound" and "leader," guided the fish to
swim into the pound.
   
   At low tide the fishermen would
bring their boats up to the pound and
scoop out the fish.
  
  A pound net could catch up to
50,000 fish at a time.

Pound Net.

       
      In the early 1900's, nets needed to be coated with tar to keep them from
   rotting in the water.

      Fishermen at Flag Ponds built six foot long wooden boxes. The bottom was
 covered with metal so they could light a fire under it to melt the tar.

    The tar had to be at the right temperature so when the nets were put into it
 they didn't burn. Some fishermen threw a potato into the pot of tar. If the potato
 floated, they knew it was the right temperature.
   By the 1950's there were fewer fish in the Chesapeake Bay, and it cost more to
catch them. The commercial fisheries at Flag Ponds were abandoned.
The "Great Fire of Prince Frederick"
   
  The town of Prince Frederick has served as the county seat for
many years. It is the town where government leaders meet to make the
rules and laws for the people of Calvert County.
   Prince Frederick is also where the county courthouse is located.
That is where important records of the county's history are kept.

   When buildings were heated by coal or wood fires, and candles
and lanterns were used as lights, fires were common.

   On March 3, 1882, at 3:00 p.m., the "Great Fire of Prince
Frederick" occurred. Most of the town burned down.

 
   The fire spread from building to building, destroying homes,
offices, the county newspaper building, stores, and the Brentwood
Hotel, then the largest hotel in Southern Maryland.

   Only one thing was saved from the hotel: a grandfather clock
that someone had carried out. According to a newspaper account,
the clock stopped at 4:10 p.m., showing that the fire only lasted
about an hour.

    Most of the very oldest records dating back to the county's
early settlement were in the courthouse.
 
      The Clerk of the Circuit Court, Somervell Sollers, tried to rescue some
   of the documents by climbing in a window while the building burned, but
   he could only save some papers dating back a short time.
   
   The loss of the records was a
major disaster because they listed names 
and information about the people 
throughout history who lived in Calvert 
County, the land and things they owned,
and the decisions of the court.

   To make matters worse, those
few documents that Sollers saved were
destroyed in another fire at a temporary
courthouse four months later.

   All of Calvert County's records
before 1882 were lost in the two fires.

   After the fire, only four buildings
in the entire town of Prince Frederick
were left standing.
   The present-day courthouse 
was built in 1915. It was
renovated and expanded over
the years. In 1991 a new wing
was added. The old courthouse 
was located on what is now the front lawn.







A Rural Community in the Early 1900's
   
      We know a lot about the town of Ben's Creek in Calvert County in 
the early 1900's. Most of the old houses are long gone, but it had been 
a strong African American community for many years. The people of 
Ben's Creek lived like people in other small farming communities all
over Calvert County and Maryland.
    At Ben's Creek all the neighbors, both African Americans and whites,
pitched in to help build new houses in the community. The houses 
were surrounded by fences, vegetable gardens, outbuildings and fields.

   For people in small rural communities, many things had to be grown or made
for themselves.

   They raised chickens, turkeys and ducks for food. Feathers were saved and
 dried to make pillows and mattresses.
 
   
In many households, each bed would have
two mattresses. One fitted with shredded
corn shucks, which was cooler, and one filled
with feathers, which was warmer. In the summer
the corn shuck mattress would be put on top.
In the winter the feather mattress would be put
on top.
 
 
   Women sewed their own quilts.

   In the vegetable gardens they
grew cabbage, tomatoes, onions, beans,
 peas, turnips and sweet potatoes.
   Vegetables were sometimes buried
in the ground, wrapped in straw, to
preserve them for a long time.

   They had orchards of apples,
peaches and pears, and collected wild
blueberries. They also had a grape arbor
for food and for shade. The grapes
would be used to make jam.

   In late November, families who
had hogs would kill them and store the
meat in the meat house. A few months
later the meat was smoked over a fire of
apple wood or sassafras to preserve it,
then hung back in the meat house for
storage.
                                                        Some families dug a hole called a "cooler" in
                                                                   a shady spot outside. Milk and butter would
                                                                   be put in crocks and buried there, to keep
                                                                   cool. Other families of the time built a small
                                                                  shed over a spring, called a "spring house,"
                                                                  which also kept milk and butter cool before
                                                                  refrigerators were used.

A LITTLE ABOUT LIFE IN THE EARLY 1900's
   Calvert County has always been made up of many farms and
small rural communities. Because there were no large cities, the way of
life here remained the same for many years. But, the changes from the
early 1900's to today are much more drastic than at any other time in
history. Great changes have occurred in the way of life in the last half
of the 1900's.
   People still used horse and buggy, steamships and the railway to 
go long distances in the early 1900's, but cars were soon to come.
Automobiles were already invented but didn't become affordable and
popular until the 1920's. Before 1950 there were no paved roads in
Calvert County. All the cars drove on dirt roads.

  Electricity was sparsely used in parts of Calvert County in the early
1900's, but it wasn't available for average home use until the 1930's. Before
that, people lit their homes and offices with oil lamps and kerosene. Some
families and businesses used battery-powered systems for electricity.
   Water for drinking was collected by hand from springs or wells.
Buckets were filled and carried back to the house.

   A spring was a place where fresh water came up out of the 
ground by itself. A well is a deep hole that people have dug to
find underground water. A hand pump or a bucket on a rope was
used to get water out of the well.
                                                                                             Drawing water from the well.  

Rainwater was collected in barrels and used for washing clothes.

 
   Before refrigerators, people
used ice houses, spring houses, 
or buried food underground,
like at Ben's Creek.
   
     An ice house was an underground room built outside. In the winter,
large ice blocks were cut from the rivers and brought into the ice house
and covered with straw. Foods could be stored in the ice house until June
when the ice melted.
   Farm machines were
invented to make the work easier,
even though horse and ox-drawn
plows were still being used by
many farmers.
 
 FAMOUS PEOPLE

   William Sampson Brooks
   William Sampson Brooks was
born in 1865 in Calvert County. He 
became a distinguished pastor, servingin 
several African Methodist Episcopal
churches all across the United States.

   He believed in the value of
education and helped raise money for
churches and schools.

   W. Sampson Brooks also traveled
to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.
He learned to speak Swedish and
preached in that language in Sweden.

   Brooks was very famous as a
speaker and a writer. His book,
Footprints of a Black Man, describes his
trip to Jerusalem.
   In 1920 he became the 44th bishop of the A.M.E. Church.

   The Brooks Administrative Building of the Calvert County Public Schools was
named for W. Sampson Brooks. The building was originally the first high school 
for African Americans in Calvert County.
 The one room school house
   
   Children who went to public schools in the 1800's and even into the 
1930's usually went to a one room school house like this one. At that 
time, public schools only went up to the seventh grade.

   There were no buses. Children often walked several miles to school.

   There was no electricity. Windows let in all the light, and a wood 
stove heated the room.
   
   There were two outhouses; one for boys and one for girls.
   Students in all the grades sat
together in the one room school house. 
The children became close, like family.  
Older students helped the younger students 
with their lessons. 

   Most one room school house teachers
were women. One teacher taught all the grades. 
Everyone had to learn reading, writing, 
arithmetic, and morals. If the teacher 
knew other subjects, she could teach them 
to older students. Topics like bookkeeping,
algebra, Latin, German and philosophy were 
taught in some Calvert County schools.
On cold winter mornings the students gathered
around the stove to get warm before 
classes started. Sometimes the teacher 
made hot cocoa.

Boys brought buckets of waterfrom a nearby well. Anyone could take a drink from the bucket using a dipper or a cup.

Before pens and paper were used, students wrote on little blackboards, called slates, and passed them to the teacher to be graded.
  
   The teacher had many other jobs besides teaching. The fire in the stove had
 to be started, the school had to be kept clean, and lunch had to be prepared. Students
 had chores also. They swept the floor two times a day.

   At lunchtime the teacher stayed in and the students went outside to play by
themselves.

   Not all children went to school every day. Boys especially had to work on the
family farm during good weather, so they would go to school more often in the
winter.
    
   One room school houses were the only public schools in Calvert County until
1922.
What town in
Calvert County is this?

Photo courtesy of the Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum

   
   The town of Chesapeake Beach was incorporated in
1894. Its purpose from the beginning was to be a resort
town.

   Otto Mears and David Moffat had a dream to build
a railroad and an amusement park for people in the
Washington area to visit.

   Land on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay
 was chosen to be the site of this modern new resort.
   Railroad tracks and railway stations were built between
Washington D.C. and Chesapeake Beach. The railroad was opened and
brought the first vacationers to Chesapeake Beach in 1900.
  In the old days, before air
conditioning or even electric fans,
people liked to go outdoors in the 
summer and have fun.

  To make a fun place for 
people to take their vacations, the 
owners of the Chesapeake Beach 
resort built a boardwalk. At first it
was built far out over the water,
with games, amusements and 
restaurants on top of it.
 
They also built fancy hotels, like The Belvedere.., ..and even a roller coaster.

Photo courtesy of the Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum

Photo courtesy of the Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum

  
   While trains brought many people from 
the Washington area, steamships brought 
people from Baltimore. The steamships docked
on a mile-long pier.
   Over the years the resort
changed in many ways. The
boardwalk and amusements suffered
storms and fires. After cars became 
popular, people had more freedom to
go to other places farther away. The 
Great Depression badly affected 
many businesses, including the  
railroad business. The Chesapeake
Beach Railway closed in 1935.


   By this time, the amusement
park had moved to the land.
However, it eventually closed in
1972. Everything was torn down
except the original railway station.
Today there are homes where the 
amusement park used to be.

The Chesapeake Beach railway station is now a museum

   The town of North Beach 
was developed about the same 
time as Chesapeake Beach. It
was incorporated as a town in 
1910. A trolley used to take 
passengers between
Chesapeake Beach and North
Beach. The "Twin Beaches" are 
the only two incorporated towns 
in Calvert County today. That 
means that they each elect 
mayors and town councils. 
North Beach today boasts a 
boardwalk and pier that are 
pleasant reminders of the 
"good old days."

Photo courtesy of the Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum

Calvert County Today
  

    In size, Calvert County is the smallest county in Maryland.
 However, in population, Calvert County is the second fastest growing
 county in Maryland. The population in 1990 was approximately 51,000.
 Projected population for the year 2000 is 75,000.
 
   Calvert County has a mild climate. The mean annual temperature
 is 56.6 degrees and the annual rainfall is 43.88 inches.
 
    Calvert County is governed by county commissioners. Five
 commissioners are elected by voters for four-year terms. Commissioners
 are in charge of the offices that collect property taxes, decide where
 homes and businesses can be built, and maintain roads. Besides many
 other services, they also plan parks and places for recreation.
   
 
FAMOUS PEOPLE   

Teacher

   Up to 1938 African American
teachers in Maryland were not paid the
same as other teachers.

   Until the 1960's, African Americans
had to go to separate schools apart from 
other students. 

   Harriet Brown from Calvert 
County filed a lawsuit in 1937 that led to
equal pay for African American teachers
in Calvert County, and then the state.

   Harriet Brown is one of five 
women in the Maryland Women's Hall of
Fame for her contribution to the rights of
African Americans in Maryland.

 

County Commissioners

   Calvert County government
experienced a first in 1981 when 
Jesse Reid was appointed a county 
commissioner. He was the first African 
American to hold the position. In 1990, 
Michael Moore was the first African 
American to be elected county 
commissioner. Both men served their
county as strong businessmen before
and after their official government positions.

Sheriff

   When Vonzell Ward was growing 
up in Chesapeake Beach, he loved to
watch police cars going by his house.
He knew he would become a policeman 
one day and have his own police car. 
After graduating from Calvert High, he 
did just that. He joined the Maryland
State Police in 1974. 

   Twenty years later, in 1994, after 
many experiences, Vonzell Ward made
Calvert County history when he was
elected sheriff. He was the first African
American to hold that position. 

   Sheriff Ward is a good example of 
how hard work and determination can
more than fulfill a child's dream.
Author
   Tom Clancy, local resident,
worked for many years as an insurance
broker in Owings. He became famous
worldwide in 1984 with the publication
of his first novel, The Hunt for Red
October. He has published many books
since that time and continues to live
with his family in Calvert County.




FAMOUS PEOPLE

   Mary D. Harrison
   Mary Dolly Harrison lived on the 
family farm in Owings her entire life,
1917-1987. She was educated in Calvert
County Public Schools. The first school
she attended was a one room school
house on Grover's Turn Road in
Owings. Not far from that site of long
ago, stands today the Mary D. Harrison 
Cultural Arts Center. It was named in
honor of Miss Harrison because she was
an outstanding leader in her community 
and because she strongly believed that
cultural arts were an important part of
education.

    Mary D. Harrison was the first
woman in Calvert County to be elected
to the position of county commissioner.
She ran for the office when she was 61
years old and was elected twice.

   Miss Harrison was also a 
businesswoman. She worked in the 
lumber business for 50 years, including
owning her own company - the Owings
Lumber Company. 

  Miss Harrison is also remembered 
for her love of nature and historical 
heritage of Calvert County.
FAMOUS PEOPLE
   
   Louis L. Goldstein
   Louis Lazarus Goldstein was born
in 1913 to Belle and Goodman Goldstein
of Prince Frederick. His parents
emigrated from East Prussia and Latvia,
and eventually settled in Calvert County.

   Louis' father peddled housewares
door-to-door. His business later became
the Prince Frederick Department Store,
which was located where the
Courthouse Annex is today. When Louis
was a child, he and his brothers and
sister all worked in the family store,
which sold everything from shoes to
horses.
   In 1939, Louis Goldstein was 
elected state delegate from Calvert
County. During World War II he served 
in the U.S. Marine Corps. He was elected 
state senator in 1947. In 1958 he was
elected state comptroller of the Treasury and has 
held that position ever since. Comptroller Goldstein has
held a statewide elected office longer than anyone in
Maryland's history.
  The comptroller is in charge of collecting all the money for the state of
Maryland. His office keeps the records of all the money that the state collects,and
how it is spent. The work of the comptroller affects every part of the state
government. Mr. Goldstein has received many awards for his contributions and    has
been recognized widely.
 
  Route 4 from Dunkirk to Solomons, the District Court and Multi-Service Center
in Prince Frederick and the Treasury Building in Annapolis are all named after
Calvert County's native son - Louis L. Goldstein.
   
County Symbols
The zebra swallowtail butterfly is the county insect.
   The Calvert County flag was
developed in 1966. Until that time there 
had been no official county flag. The
flag has the gold and black bars from the
Arms of Calvert. A green tobacco leaf is 
in the center, because tobacco was
important to the early Calvert Countians
and it represents growth.

The Calvert County Seal
   The purple martin is the county
bird. Its name comes from the male's
glossy dark purplish-blue feathers. The
females and young have gray feathers
underneath. 

   Many people today build houses
for the birds to nest in, so they can enjoy
watching them. Long ago, several tribes 
of Native Americans in the South hung 
clusters of hollow gourds in their 
villages to attract purple martins.
   
 
   The bald cypress is the county
tree. It is an unusual tree that likes to
live in swamps. It has a broad bottom
and can grow 150 feet tall and 17 feet
wide. The roots of the tree come out of
the ground near the bottom of the trunk
and make small rounded humps called
"knees."

   The bald cypress is a conifer,
which are types of trees (like pines) that
usually keep their leaves on all winter.
The cypress drops its leaves in the fall,
giving it the name "bald."
   
   The wood of the bald cypress
does not rot very fast. It has always been
prized wood for building ships, barn
siding, and fence posts.

   During colonial times there were
many places where bald cypress could
be found, but people cut down almost
all of the trees.

   Today, there are only a few places
to see them, such as the Battle Creek
Cypress Swamp Nature Center in Calvert
County.

 

 

 

 

   Very old cypress fossils were found
   at Calvert Cliffs. 
 
   The American foxhound is 
the county dog.  

   Foxhounds are medium-sized 
dogs that can run fast and long.
Because of these abilities, packs of
foxhounds have been used for 
hunting foxes since colonial times.
Fox hunting was a popular sport in
England and America at one time. 

  George Washington, the first
President of the United States,
owned several foxhounds. 

   The American foxhound and
the English foxhound are separate 
breeds.
  
   The mountain laurel is the
county flower.

   Mountain laurel is a beautiful
flowering shrub native to the woods of
the Eastern United States. It keeps its
leaves all winter, so it is easy to spot on
the forest floor.

   Mountain laurel blooms in late
spring with light rose to white flowers
that are sticky to the touch.

   Mountain laurel can grow to over
ten feet high.
 "Cavaliers of Calvert" 

hun-dred might-y years a-go, the Cav-a-liers, they came, in-to

   The county song was published
in 1954 for the 300th anniversary of 
Calvert County. It was written by Gladys
E. Mogck (now Gladys Mogck Brown),
and is titled "Cavaliers of Calvert."
Maryland State Symbols
   The Maryland State flag
combines the black and gold of the
Arms of Calvert, with the red and white
cross of the Arms of Crossland. Leonard
Calvert and Ann Crossland were the
parents of the first Lord Baltimore,
George Calvert, who received the 
original charter of Maryland.
   The black-eyed Susan is the  
Maryland State flower. It is a plant 
that was found in Maryland and Calvert
County when the first settlers arrived.Its
black and yellow flowers were sent back 
to England to be studied. Today you can 
still find the black-eyed Susan growing
on the side of the road in some places. 
 
   Jousting is the Maryland State sport. It is a
game that knights played long ago. Two knights
would ride their horses at each other very fast, and 
try to spear each other with long poles, called
lances. The winner was the knight who could stay
alive and on his horse.

   Today, jousters try to spear small rings with
their lances, instead of each other. The rider who
can spear the most rings is the winner.

   Jousting is a sport that is not well-known outside
of Maryland, but each year there are more
than 50 tournaments in our state. There is a jousting
tournament each August at Port Republic, in Calvert
County, sponsored by Christ Church.
PLACES TO VISIT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT CALVERT COUNTY* 

   1. Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Sanctuary
   Gray's Road, off Sixes Road just south of Prince
   Frederick
   (410) 535-5327
   Hours: April - September, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.,
   Tues.-Sat, 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., Sun.
   October - March, Area closes at 4:30 p.m.
   Closed Mondays, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas
   and New Year's Day.
   Admission free.

   2. Calvert Marine Museum
   Route 2 in Solomons
   (301) 326-2042
   Hours: May 1 - September 30, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00
   p.m., Mon.-Sun.
   October 1 - April 30, 10:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.,
   Mon.-Fri., 12:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m., Sat.-Sun.
   Closed New Year's Day, Thanksgiving and
   Christmas.
   Admission $3.00 adults, $2.00 children.

   3. Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum
   Mears Avenue in Chesapeake Beach (next to
   Rod & Reel Restaurant)
   (410) 257-3892
   Hours: Open daily May
   through September, 1:00
   p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Open
   weekends in April and
   October, 1:00 p.m. to 4:00
   p.m. Appointments can
   be made to visit during
   winter and outside
   regular operating hours.
   School groups are
   especially encouraged.
   Admission free.
   *Hours of operation
   and admission prices
   are subject to change. 
   
   4. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant
   Visitors Center
   Route 4, 10 miles south of Prince Frederick.
   Hours: Open daily 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
   (except major holidays)
   Admission free.
   General visitors are not allowed inside
   the plant, but group tours can be arranged by
   calling the Education Center Office at (410)
   260-4673.

   5. Flag Ponds
   Route 4 in St. Leonard
   (410) 535-5327
   Hours: Memorial Day - Labor Day, 9:00 a.m. to
   6:00 p.m., Mon.-Fri., 9:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m.
   Weekends.
   Labor Day - Memorial Day, 9:00 a.m. to 6:00
   p.m. Weekends Only.
   Admission: $4.00 per car for Calvert County
   residents, $6.00 per car for out-of-county
   residents, $25.00 per bus.

   6. Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum.
   Route 4 to Route 264 (3 miles south of Prince
   Frederick). Left on Route 265, six miles to park
   entrance.
   (410) 586-0055.
   Hours: Open Wednesday through Sunday,
   April 15 to October 15, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
   Groups must make advance reservations.
   Guided tours available by advance request.
   Admission free.
   For teachers: Hands-on educational
   programs available for a small fee for school
   groups.

   7. One Room School House Museum
   On the grounds of Christ Church on Broomes Island Road (Route 264) in Port Republic.
   (410) 586-0232.
   Hours: Summer, 2:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. .every
   Sunday. Special group or individual visits may
   be arranged. Admission free.
 
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   Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society. New York: W.W. Norton &
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   Baker, Jean, Suzanne Chapelle, Dean Esslinger, Whitman Ridgway, Jean Russo,
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   Brewington, M.V. Chesapeake Bay Log Canoes and Bugeyes. Centreville, MD:
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   Special Thanks To;
   Mrs. Mary Marvin Breckinridge Patterson and the Marpat Foundation
   The Calvert County Board of Commissioners:
   Mary M. Krug, President
   Hagner R. Mister, Vice President
   Patrick M. Buehler
   Mark R. Frazer, D.D.S.
   Linda L. Kelley
   The Calvert County Heritage Committee:
   Mabel Briscoe, Chairperson
   Joan D. Roach, Editor
   Patricia Hofmann, Assistant Editor
   Marcia Hammett, Assistant Editor
   Kirsti Uunila, Assistant Editor
   Michael Smolek, Assistant Editor
   Blaine Adams
   Michael Brown
   Gordon Grahame
   J. Evans Ireland
   Bartley Wood
   Calvert County Public Schools
   Board of Education:
   Gail M. Hoerauf-Bennett, President
   Harold J. R. Kahl, Vice President
   William J. Moloney, Secretary-Treasurer
   Dana M. Jones
   Jo Ann Kushner
   William J. Phalen
   Kelly A. Mulligan, Student Representative
   Supervisors of Instruction:
   Guffrie M. Smith, Jr.
   Francis J. Finan
   Second Grade Teachers of Calvert County
   Staff of the Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum
   Harriet Stout, Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum
   Richard Dodd, The Calvert Marine Museum
   Mrs. Elvin Howard, One Room School House Museum
   Thomas Callaway, and members of The St. Mary's City Militia
   Historic St. Mary's City
   Calvert County Historical Society
   Gladys Mogck Brown
   Frank Collinson
   James Burcham
   William and Linda Breen
   Ida Herzig